The large variation in recruitment rate at sites across the region. How can two stars have the same apparent magnitude yet emit different amounts of light? increase in the brightness of tail spot coloration in males of a fish species. Gonochoristic: separate sexes have separate reproductive organs. - Over the course of a year certain species only recruit at certain times; doesn't make any of its own recruits to the population has to come from other populations (if you preserve a sink population you won't be very effectively preserving that population), The other populations as mentioned in sink populations (want to protect sources), the exchange of individuals among populations, - Fundamental process that helps to maintain populations, an interbreeding group of individuals of the same species, - Hard part chemistry: when calcified structures are being laid down their chemical composition generally reflects what is in the ambient seawater of where they are living; used in coastal ecosystems, a pattern in the genetic makeup of individuals in a population, all populations are equally likely to contribute to the larval pool; well mixed populations; expect little or no genetic structure; expect low Fst values, populations are more likely to exchange individuals with a neighboring population; pattern in the data called isolation by distance, The space a species occupies is usually heterogeneous so their are populations in patches/fragments, a population of populations or a population consisting of a network of partially isolated smaller populations and exist within a balance of colonization and extinction; linked together by ongoing dispersal and gene flow among the patches/fragments, Which event occurred at the end of the Paleozoic Era? $$ Supply-SIde (help here to edit) (slide 13), environment is emportant because it wil determine the health, Further evidence for supply-side control of recruitment in corals based on the relationship between adult distribution and the distribution of settlers. A. flower, B. embryo, C. cone, D. fruit. How much comes in [birth and immigration] and how much goes out [death and emmigration]. What is the benefit of planktotrophic larval dispersal when compared to lecithotrophic larval dispersal? (The weight, age, and sex of all five subjects were the same.) what is the purpose of a spacer used with an inhaler? Describe adaptations of an organism living in the abyssal zone of the ocean. A female chimpanzee takes care of her infant for three years. d. Tertiary period. Occurs in areas where populations where wiped out, but nutrients are abundant [weeder species]. How did boats traditionally prevent barnacles from settling on them? Sketch the sequence in which pre-mRNA is "edited" after it is made on the DNA template and before it is ready to function as mRNA in the cytoplasm. A. muddy soil B. cattail plants C. slowly flowing water D. warm temperature. What are some advantages/disadvantages of having a planktonic phase for benthic organisms? < 99 % Coral larvae make it to juvenile age!!!!! How can some organisms solve the problem of competition for space in the rocky intertidal. two different "types" of male - both have good strategies, when the sexes are separate and mate location is very difficult, males may be small animals that either attach to larger females or reside very close to them, the evolutionary force leading to the evolution of cooperate behavior among close relatives to proliferate similar genes, an extreme case of an entire colony of individuals behaving in a cooperate fashion, when marine species shed their gametes directly into the water - hoping sperm land on eggs, 1. fertilization success: often low, espcially when distance is big and turbulence is strong, 1. attraction on small scales of sperm to eggs by means of sperm attractants, compounds that induce the sperm to swim towards the egg - increases target size, in some groups, specialized gamete recognition proteins are employed to avoid interspecies fertilization, 1. diatoms - they are cells/cell chains so they reproduce by fission, if there is a cost to reproduction, it then matters how reserves are allocated to reproduction vs. somatic growth. (slide 9), when conditions are somewhat predictable and they get away with less, pelagic feeding ( can feed in the water column and not just passively moving the water column), pelagic nonfeeding (no sensory adaptations to find prey), What are advantages and disadvantages of different types? What is the result of nonsexual reproduction? Humans first appeared during the a. Cretaceous period. What are brooders? (slide 17), Connectivity in a changing world: implications for resilience (slide 18), Resilience refers to the ability of recovery following a disturbance, Extinction risk in open vs. closed populations (slide 19), if you have open population with high connectivity, low extinction rate, high change of rescue, New paradigms in understanding the connectivity of marine populations (slide 20), marine populations were generally open, current strong, assumptions larvae disbursement, New paradigms in understanding the connectivity of marine populations, o there is a barrier between these 2 islands due to eddies and circulation patterns / barriers that separates the 2 populations (green/red) everything to the east belong to the green population, much more close than what we used to think of, Larvae are not simple passive organisms at the mercy of the environment, In general: the longer the planktonic phase, the more specialized the larval senses (swimming, feeding, predator avoidance, etc), larval behavior has a big difference in where they end up, Chemical Inducers for Settlement: Coral Flypaper, Porites astreoides larvae under time-lapse photos, Habitat Selection >> Attachment >> Metamorphosis >>. All females fight until the strongest becomes the male, once male dies, then females fight again. lobster phyllosoma larvae, Coastal larvae with a planktonic period from 1 week to 2 months (often 4-6 weeks). The per capita growth rate of many species varies temporally for a variety of reasons, including seasonality and habitat destruction. The outcome of sexual selection is likely to be, Increase in the brightness of tail spot coloration in males of a fish species. When finding a mate, and fertilization all go to plan; however, occured at the wrong time such that the larvae miss the plankton bloom and thus die of starvation. Large changes in size due to variable survival and recruitment. The following data compare the state of five subjects whose circulation was monitored. May have autotrophic capabilities, e.g. (a) Explain the advantage in having an inducible enzyme system that is regulated by the presence of a substrate: _____ (b) Suggest when it would not be adaptive to have an inducible system for metabolism of a substrate: _____ (c) Suggest how gene control in a non-inducible system might be achieved: What are the levels of organization in a biome, from largest to smallest? Larva are more successful in warm waters such that they can grow fast enough to avoid predation. The parents do not have to invest as much energy into each larva. Which of the following species types would likely produce the smallest egg? In cells, the energy available in food is used to make an energy-rich compound called. - Physiological tolerances: plants that inhabit salt marshes have evolved from land plants and are used to using fresh water and are evolving to enter a saline environment. Complex process influenced by environmental, genetic, Most benthic marine organisms have complex life cycles (slide 3), examples, hydrozoan (pelagic phase, benthic phase), alternating sexual stages, Gamete development (production of gametes and eggs), Competency and dispersal (what happens to the larvae), Recruitment is the point where we can detect them on a reef as new member of the population (visible); settlement is often microscopic and very difficult to do, Reproductive ecology (gamete development, release, fertilization) (slide 5), relies on dissemination of thousands of gametes. Organisms are larger than sediment particles so sediment passes through and organisms stay on top, - Echinoderms: Five classes within most are benthic; some infaunal, but most are epifaunal; asteroidea = sea stars; ophiuroidea = brittle stars/basket stars; echinoidea = urchins/sand dollars; crinoidea = sea lilies; holothuroidea = sea cucumbers; suspension feeders, sediment feeders, and predators, - bioturbation/irrigation/creating structures (macrofauna more important contributor), - retained on 250 to 500 micron sieve (300 as minimum in deep and 500 min in shallow), - Polychaetes Phylum annelida: many hairs, biradial symmetry, most diverse in annelida, create burrows in sediments, segmented, can make tubes out of most things, some highly mobile and other sessile, can be suspension feeders/predators; most sediment samples or more are polychaetes, organisms that live on the surface of sediments at the sediment water interface, - Bioturbation of sediments - when organisms move sediment by digging, burrowing, and eating; causes mixing of sediments; fecal mounds, - Oxygenate sediment through bioturbation, How meiofauna in the sediment are studied, Metabarcoding: same approach used for microbes, but uses 18S eukaryotic barcode, - Chemistry of sediments and biogeochemical processes, -Traditionally: use culture methods (spread out on plate and look under microscope; misses a lot of microbes), Started with 454 next generation sequencing method; use DNA sequence of a target gene in prokaryotes; can give species richness distributions, Break up genomics into small pieces of DNA; compare pieces to database and determine gene function which will give an estimate of functional diversity in sediment sample; more of an approach to figure out roles of organisms in ecosystems, mass of living organism in a sample or in a given area; weight of animals per area, the categorization of a habitat or ecosystem into zones along some type of environmental gradient; with each zone having a distinct group of characteristic species, an increase or decrease in the magnitude of a property as you move through an ecosystem, Zone At or above the drift line (area where things wash up on shore; usually dry and can be rained on so must be able to deal with fresh water rain), Zone that gets daily inundation; between drift line and effluent line; conditions for organisms are less severe, but still some challenges (more moisture), Zone from effluent line to surf zone; more species with greater variety of adaptations; mostly inundated with water; less harsh environment; more species come into play with greater variety of adaptations, Reasons for patterns in animal distribution, - Water movement: controls slope in intertidal area; regulates characteristics of pore water; beach formation; sediment grain size, cyanobacteria and eukaryotic unicellular algae, - Primary producers: significant food source; highly accessible food source and thought to be a major producer to marine food webs (macintyre 1996), - Key nursery grounds for commercially important species (crabs, shellfish), Strong gradients; make it a harsh environment for most species so need adaptations; intensity varies geographically, rafts of floating dead plant matter can be 100-1000 m in area, species that creates habitats and modifies the environment with positive effects on the diversity, distribution and abundance of associated organisms; term coined by Dayton in 1972, modifies environment or creating structure or removing structure; Jones 1994, near the surface of the sediments - helps make the roots stay oxygenated more easily; can be pioneer species in salt marshes, system of air passages, allows for root oxygenation; common for intertidal plants to have.