Furthermore, a recent survey in the UK suggested that working hungover or under the influence of alcohol costs the UK economy between 1.2 billion and 1.4 billion a year; approximately 900 million more than previous estimates [9]. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. For males, however, the majority of jobs associated with lower likelihood of being cases was consistent with the main analysis (i.e. This work was supported by the Medical Research Council [grant number: MR/S000607/1]. We also applied a formal correction for multiple comparisons, which gives us further confidence that the results are robust. We found robust evidence that publicans and managers of licenced premises were more likely to be heavy drinkers. A false discovery rate correction was applied to account for multiple comparisons and risk of type I errors, and all reported p-values associated with PRs are the corrected versions. Substance use and substance use disorder by industry; 2013. Workplace interventions are one mechanism of health promotion that have the potential to access specific groups who are often hard to reach, and have the advantage of potentially increased exposure given the large amount of time spent at work [27]. It is well-documented that individuals under-report their alcohol consumption for a number of reasons. In females, vocational and industrial trainers and instructors had the highest ratio of heavy drinkers and primary and nursery education teaching professionals had the lowest (Table S8). J Prim Prev. not currently employed). Such effective measures are likely to benefit the individual, business and the wider economy through improved productivity. Cases were more likely to be males and younger than controls (both P<0.05, data not shown). drinking status) or outcome (e.g. The lower number of occupations reaching statistical significance prohibited meaningful interpretation of broad categories for females. Policing: J Policy Prac. Additional covariates (index of multiple deprivation, disability status, and ethnicity) were added to the model and a change in effect size of >10% was considered evidence for including the variable to account for potential bias. A minimum unit Price for alcoholIn. PubMed When directly comparing males and females, there was evidence of gender-specific associations being dependent on job group. Workplace interventions and policies have the potential to act as prevention measures in occupations where heavy drinking is prevalent. Bmj. All supplementary tables as listed in the main manuscript. Alcohol use among workers in male-dominated industries: a systematic review of risk factors.

2004;24(8):9811010. The final model was adjusted for age, gender, recruitment centre and index of multiple deprivation, based on Townsend score [19]. The largest effect sizes for being a case were observed for publicans and managers of licenced premises (PR=2.81, 95%CI 2.523.14); industrial cleaning process occupations (PR=2.09, 1.333.28); plasterers (PR=2.07, 1.662.59); and sport and leisure assistants (PR=2.07, 1.452.97). In the largest study of its kind, we found evidence for associations between a wider variety of occupations and the risk of heavy alcohol consumption than identified previously, particularly in females, although causality cannot be assumed. The difference in age is likely a result of retired participants, who are generally older, not matching study eligibility criteria (i.e. Article The estimated cost to the UK economy of lost productivity due to alcohol was 7.3 billion in 20092010 [1], equivalent to 9.2 billion in 2018. We found evidence that female police officers had a higher prevalence ratio for heavy drinking. Roche AM, Pidd K, Berry JG, Harrison JE. The same is observed at the opposite end of the spectrum where members of the clergy, identified as a protective occupation in our analysis, have consistently shown low rates of alcohol-related mortality. There is however a need to acknowledge the greater proportion of males, and slightly younger mean age in our sample, than the entire UK Biobank cohort, and that UK Biobank has certain selection biases towards a healthy volunteer population which means it is unlikely to completely represent the population workforce [46]. [There are six glasses in an average bottle]); pictures accompanied these questions to provide visual representation of each measure. 1992;16(4):73446. Industrial StrategyIn. There is scope for workplace health management to be supported by the UK Government through the Industrial Strategy where People is considered one of the Five Foundations of Productivity [2]. PubMed Central Aggregating the occupation data to two-digit SOC, V.2000 exhibits support for the main findings. In: National Clinical Practice Guideline 115; 2009. Questions from the UK Biobank baseline assessment were used to develop two study groups: heavy drinkers (cases) and drinkers not reaching criteria for cases (controls). The occupations with the lowest PR remained clergy (PR=0.18, 0.110.30) for men and school secretaries for women (PR=0.46, 0.290.74). Edited by Home Office; 2012. There was also consistent evidence that workers in professional occupations were less likely to drink at high levels. Ethical approval for UK Biobank was gained from the Research Ethics Service (REC reference: 15/NW/0274), and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Most of these studies have focused on morbidity and/or mortality, but evidence for how different jobs affect alcohol consumption itself is scarce, including in the UK where data has focused on mortality outcomes [13]. Romeri E, Baker A, Griffiths C. Alcohol-related deaths by occupation, England and Wales, 2001-05. Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Molecular & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK, MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Molecular & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK, Liverpool Centre for Alcohol Research, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK, You can also search for this author in Financial headache: the cost of workplace hangovers and intoxication to the UK economy; 2019. EMP04: employment by occupation AprilJune 2008. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. There were 100,817 UK Biobank participants included in this study (Fig. There was evidence, following correction for multiple comparisons, of 77 occupations having an association with alcohol consumption status in drinkers (Table S1), with 51 having a higher ratio of heavy drinkers (Table1). Job loss can also lead to worse outcomes in alcohol use through increased consumption and increased risk of morbidity and death [4]. Our aim in this cross-sectional study was to determine if certain occupations are associated with increased rates of heavy alcohol consumption in working individuals who drink and are aged 4069years from UK Biobank (http://www.ukbiobank.ac.uk/). Kaila-Kangas L, Koskinen A, Pensola T, Mkel P, Leino-Arjas P. Alcohol-induced morbidity and mortality by occupation: a population-based follow-up study of working Finns. Am J Epidemiol. Ito C, Yuzuriha T, Noda T, Ojima T, Hiro H, Higuchi S. Brief intervention in the workplace for heavy drinkers: a randomized clinical trial in Japan. For example, evidence from Spain suggests that the unemployed have double the directly alcohol-attributable mortality compared to the employed [44], an outcome that is possibly related to socioeconomic differences in alcohol-related outcomes (i.e. Those working in other industries, especially with links to alcohol, also demonstrate increased propensity for heavy drinking. the alcohol harm paradox) [45]. 2009;104(9):1487500. 2017;180:93102. Finally, the data were collected 20062010 which means we may have missed changes in drinking patterns and occupations in the intervening years, although evidence from the ONS suggests that, with the exception of managers / senior officials and professional occupations, the proportion employed in each broad occupation category is similar between 2008 and 2018 (Table S11). most four-digit SOCs associated with heavy drinking derive from a two-digit SOC that is associated with heavy drinking) (Table S9). Samokhvalov AV, Popova S, Room R, Ramonas M, Rehm J. Appl Econ. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Baseline assessment was undertaken between 2006 and 2010 at one of 22 centres across the UK; 89% were recruited from 17 centres in England, 7% from two in Scotland, and 4% from three in Wales. In cross-sectional studies with binary outcomes, the association between exposure and outcome is estimated by means of prevalence ratios. 2010;45(3):2527. cases), of which 5154 (28.8%) were females. Jobs classified under skilled trade occupations (n=19) had the highest number of associations with heavy drinking. 2015;26(1):11622.

BMC Public Health 2022 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/datasets/employmentbyoccupationemp04 EMP04: employment by occupation; 2008. 1); 46% were females and the average age was 55years (SD=8). Bellis MA, Hughes K, Nicholls J, Sheron N, Gilmore I, Jones L. The alcohol harm paradox: using a national survey to explore how alcohol may disproportionately impact health in deprived individuals. Sudlow C, Gallacher J, Allen N, Beral V, Burton P, Danesh J, et al. Household survey data from the US found an association between higher rates of alcohol use disorders and employment in transport and construction industries when analyzing 104 occupations [11]. We then examined the occupations by duration of employment. Frone MR. The variation in case control status explained by occupation alone was around 5%. Pulido J, Vallejo F, Alonso-Lpez I, Regidor E, Villar F, de la Fuente L, et al. Here, Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were performed as an alternative to logistic regression to examine the association of case/control alcohol consumption status with current occupation, where all employed participants not working in each specific job were used as the reference group. Roche AM, Lee NK, Battams S, Fischer JA, Cameron J, McEntee A. All jobs with counts <5 in either cases or controls were excluded from the results in both the combined and stratified analyses. However, the large sample size of >100,000 helps provide greater precision in our estimates alongside good power to detect differences.

Job strain and alcohol intake: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 140 000 men and women. Trained interviewers subsequently coded the participants job using the four-digit Standard Occupational Classification (SOC), V.2000. J Stud Alcohol. The base model included all participants and age, sex and recruitment centre (n=22) as covariates. There are other specific outcomes that warrant discussion. Drug Alcohol Depend. demands, effort-reward deficits) [33]. Skilled trade occupations remained the broad classification with most associations for heavy drinking in males. There were nine occupations with a PR >2 for females including storage and warehouse managers (PR=2.48, 1.414.37); estate agents auctioneers (PR=2.24, 1.383.63); driving instructors (PR=2.22, 1.353.64); and, bar staff (PR=2.07, 1.353.19).