It occurs at low to medium altitudes. Same chemical should not be chosen for second spray. The larva contains 6 instars in which the larval period varies from 15-18 days. Orange and pale green nymphs and adults are seen on the ear head. Hind wings are pale brown with dark external margin. The larval period is completed in about 14-28 days. Egg: Illustrated. It is common in maize fields in high-altitude areas in central and southwestern Tanzania and occurs on wild hosts in Mozambique but has not yet been reported on maize in that country. Tobacco caterpillar [Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)]Features of IdentificationSpodoptera species are distributed throughout India. Larvae overwinter in the bases of maize stalks, below soil level, where they are protected from natural enemies and harsh environmental conditions.

Features of IdentificationChiloloba acuta adults are bright metallic green in colour with prominent eyes and covered with yellow hairs above and beneath . PAU Campus, Ludhiana, Punjab-141004, INDIA. maize Hind wings are margined with long hairs, their tips are elongated. Biological control by two parasitic wasps, Cotesia flavipes and Xanthopimpla stemmator, that attack the spotted stemborer, has shown good results. Under severe infestation, the entire young plant may be consumed.Later on they migrate and feed on the leaves which gives thin papery appearance. Cotesia flavipes locates the stemborers while they are feeding inside the plant stems. The full grown larva is greasy in appearance, plump and dark brown in colour with red head. Spotted Stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). Pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens Walker. Due to lower temperature, only two flight peaks occur in the eastern Highveld region. Features of Identification Pyrilla adult females lay elongate pale white to slightly bluish eggs in loosely arranged elongated clusters of 20-50 which are covered by white waxy filaments of the caudal tuft. The larva after hatching, begins to feed on endosperm. They hatch after 4-10 days. Nature of Damage The larvae feed on leaves and also cut the tender stems of young and growing plants either below the surface or above the ground. Males lack paired tufts on the basal segment of the abdomen below. Samples of affected stems can be cut open to find caterpillars and pupae. The lifecycle is completed in 4045 days. Features of IdentificationPink stem borer is the most important pest during Rabi season (winter) causing yield losses in the range of 25.7-78.9%. Talwana, Makerere University; John R. Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat. When larvae are fully grown, they pupate and remain inside the maize stem. Other common names: maize stalk borer, African stalk borer; mieliestamrusper (A); broca-do-colmo (P). Features of IdentificationThe adult is tiny weevil about 2.5 mm long, dark brown or reddish brown in colour. Stemborer team, icipe, Larva of Chilo partellus. In East and southern Africa, it occurs in mixed populations with other stem borer species such as Chilo partellus and Sesamia calamitis but is the dominant species at higher altitudes of 2000 m above sea level. Vegetative stage or before harvest. Add 200 g detergent powder or 200 ml of soap solution to the filtered solution. The forewings of males were greenish-grey in color which later faded to straw yellow while the hind wings are cream to light yellow with dark brown outer marginal band. The larva shows colour variation from greenish to brown. Hand pick and destroy larvae before it enters inside the ear, Installation of pheromone traps @4/ha for monitoring purpose. There are three larval instars. This helps in limiting the initial establishment of stemborers that would infest the next crop.

If infestation is more than 20%, whorl application of any one of the recommended insecticides for FAW, Hand picking and destruction of larvae boring into ears, Sowing must be completed by first fortnight of February, Seed treatment with imidacloprid 600 FS @ 6 ml/kg seed or Thiamethoxam 30 FS @ 8.0 ml per kg seed. The pupa is dark brown, barrel-shaped. Eggs are spherical in shape and creamy-white in colour, laid singly on silk. It has dark brown grey lines on the body with lateral white lines, Pupa -Brown in colour, occurs in soil, leaf, pod and crop debris. The new adult will remain in the seed for 3 to 4 days while it hardens and matures. Mixed populations of B. fusca and C. partellus may occur in the same plant, as is sometimes observed in maize and sorghum in South Africa. In all, some 18 species belonging to eight different families of parasitic wasps have been recorded from southern Africa, as listen in Polaszek (1998). After a week onwards, larvae move out of whorl and bore upwards the developing stalk, often reaching meristem.When. Use protective clothing, facemask and gloves during preparation and application of pesticides. Eggs are creamy white, bead-like laid in 2-4 longitudinal rows inside the sheath of 1-2 lower leaves. Egg -Bead like laid in rows within the leaf sheath, Adult -Straw coloured moth with white wings, Spray phosaloneb 35%EC at every 20 days interval. As a result, grains are hollowed out resulting into loss of viability. Larvae also damage immature ears. Larvae excrete faecal matter in the form of pellets which are seen in the plant whorls. Nymphs and adult suck the juice from within the grains when they are in the milky stage. On older plants where maize ears are present, eggs may be laid below husk leaves. Spring maize is cultivated in North-Western plain zone of India in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. If young plants are infected they seldom produce ears.

The pupal period is about 8 13 days. The larva is creamy pink to yellowish brown with 4 rows of dotted stripes along the back with reddish brown head. The female moths lay egg masses on upper or under side of the leaf and covered with tan coloured scales. Removing and destroying stubble before planning is an effective practice, killing a large proportion of overwintering stem borer larvae. The insect can infest crop at maturing stage in the field or while storing. The wasp lays about 40 eggs into a stemborer. and Polaszek A. Upon hatching the larvae of the parasitic wasp feed internally in the stemborer, and then exits and spin cocoons. Application of leaf powder of Guduchi. Two applications of NPV at 10 days interval at 1.5 X1012 POB along with, Crude sugar 2.5 kg + cotton seed kernel powder 250 g on the ear heads. The larvae feed inside the grain kernel for 1820 days. Spotted stemborers may be detected in older crops and in crop residues by taking random samples of stems to dissect to find caterpillars and pupae. This website belongs to ICAR-Indian Institute of Maize Research, an autonomous organization under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. Later roots as well as the lower part of the stem are destroyed resulting in lodging. Neem products (powder from ground neem seeds) are reportedly effective and may be applied to the leaf whorl in a 1:1 mixture with dry clay or sawdust. Precautions for pesticide use: Not more than two chemical sprays are to be used in entire crop duration. The incubation period is 1-3 days. Pupation, which takes place inside the tunnel, lasts for 2-3 weeks. In the case of severe attack, leaves including midribs are eaten away and the fields look as if grazed by the cattle. Yield losses may exceed 20% on maize and 50% on sorghum. Under crowded conditions, or when the host plants are under stress, aphids produce winged adults, which mould five times to become adults. Chilo zonellus (Swinhoe, 1884);Argyria lutulentalis Tams, 1932, Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda (Insecta);Order: Lepidoptera;Family: Crambidae. The maize stem borer is a chronic pest that can cause serious damage if it is not controlled. When fully grown the larva has a prominent reddish-brown head. The eggs hatch after one week. There is a zigzag line of pale scales on a dark background in the sub terminal area. They tunnel into the centre of the stalk where they feed until fully grown.

The gravid females lay very tiny, creamy white oval shaped eggs singly in soil. Nature of DamageTermite invasion initiates from dry leaves. Laid in clusters behind leaf sheaths. Intercropping maize with non-hosts crops like cassava or legumes like cowpea can reduce spotted stemborer damage. Alternatively, maize can be intercropped with a repellent plant such as silver leaf desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) and a trap plant, such as Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora) as a border crop around this intercrop to protect maize from stemborers. Forewings are olive green to pale brown with a dark brown circular spot in the centre. Samples of affected stems can be cut open to find caterpillars and pupae. Pupation takes place in soil by constructing an earthen cage around them in the month of June. Are flat and oval (scale-like), creamy-white, about 0.8mm long, laid in overlapping batches of 10-80 eggs on the upper and underside leaf surfaces, mainly near the midribs. The pupa is reddish brown in colour and pupation takes place in underground. Nurturing Diversity, Resilience, Livelihood & Industrial Inputs, Major insect pests of maize and their managementThere are four major pests of maize prevalent in India. Spray any one of the following on the 150th and 210th day (1000 l spray fluid), The maggot feeds on the young growing shoots results in , Use seeds pelleted with insecticides (see sorghum), Seed treatment with imidacloprid 70 WS 10 g/kg of seeds. Keep the mixture for 24 hours to ferment. Early damage to maize by Chilo partellus larva. Predators: Chrysopids, Anthocoreids, coccinellids, pentatomid bugs, wasps, spiders, Installation of pheromone traps @10/ ha for monitoring purpose. Nature of DamageAs it is an internal feeder, both adults and larvae attack the grains and feed voraciously. Chemical control can be achieved by applications of granules or dusts to the leaf whorl early in crop growth to kill early larval instars. Termites [Odontotermes obesus (Rambur)]. Incubation period varies from 4-5 days. In males, hind wings are a pale straw-colour, and in females, they are white. Another species of Busseola, B. phaia Bowden, is becoming a threat to maize in East and southern Africa. The use of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize with insecticidal properties is the most important tool for stem borer control in maize in South Africa. Moths prefer to lay eggs on maize plants that are 4-6 weeks old. Fall armyworm (FAW) is an invasive insect pest causing serious damage to maize at all stages of its growth.It was first reported in India in May, 2018. Georg Goergen (source CABI CPC). There are five or six larval stages. The incidence is more severe when good rain follows dry period. Digging near damaged seedlings and destruction of larvae. Fully grown larvae attain a length of about 35-40 mm. Freshly hatched larva is slightly yellowish in colour with black head. Hind wings are pale smoky white with a broad blackish outer margin. The adult beetles feed on the pollen and results in poor seed set. It has dark brown-grey lines on the body with lateral white lines. Bore holes visible on the stem near the nodes. Collection and destruction of the stubbles. The hind wing is greyish white with grey margins. Pupa is yellow in colour. The pupa is naked and the pupal stage lasts for 6-7 days. Nature of DamageThis pest is serious on maize at the time of flowering. Pink larva enters into the stem causing dead heart symptom . Full grown maggot is yellow in colour. It also feeds on the panicles, and produces honeydew on which sooty molds grow. Conservation of natural enemies such as coccinellids, chrysopids and syrphids that are found to feed on the aphids which will reduce the population considerably without any insecticidal spray. Stemborer team, icipe, Chilo partellus adult moth, set specimen. Apply any one of the following insecticides: Apply any one of the followingon 3rd and 18th day after panicle emergence : 2015 This method has limited effectiveness once the, Overholt W.A, Maes K.V.N and Goebel F.R. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. In stored bulk grain, infestation remains confined to upper 30 cms depth only. Features of IdentificationFemales lay about 300 creamy white dome-shaped eggs. As larvae grow, holes in the leaves become bigger until large numbers of holes appear (illustrated) or leaves take on a ragged appearance. When infestation takes place at early plant growth stages, plants may develop dead heart symptoms. Plough soon after harvest, remove and destroy the stubbles. It also transmits maize mosaic virus. Spherical, about 1 mm in diameter, the chorion with radial ridges; initially creamy-white in colour, darkening with age. Biological control by two parasitic wasps, Chemical control can be achieved by applications of granules or dusts to the leaf whorl early in crop growth to kill early larval instars. The adult moth is pale brown in colour with dark specks. Angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier). The tunnels are filled with excreta. Larval period is 7-10 days with 3-4 instars. Eggs are laid in groups of 20-45 between the leaf sheaths and the stem of the plant. The life cycle is completed in one month. They are active at night and rest on plants and plant debris during the day. Biology and management of economically important lepidopteran cereal stem borers in Africa. Application of BtK formulations @ 2g/l or HaNPV @500LE/ha directed into ears if heavy infestation is noticed. The pupa is dark brown in colour. Soak the powder in 50 litres of water overnight.Stir and filter the contents using cotton cloth. Through mechanical devicesmonitoring and mass trapping (Probe traps) of stored product insects can be done, Staggered sun drying with short exposure to sun spread reduces insect infestation, By modified atmospheric storage, insects can be controlled by decreasing O2 or increasingCO, Use of plant products such as Malabar nut-, Storing of maize in double layered bags is advisable. On damaged grains, a circular hole with a characteristic flap or trap door appears.

(2001). Older larvae remain and feed inside the whorl.The damages by late instars (4th instar onwards) result in extensive defoliation of leaves and presence of large amounts of faecal pellets in whorls. (1983). Nature of DamageOnly larvae damage grains, adults being harmless. Holes in stem caused by, Spotted Stemborer infestations may be detected by walking through young crops looking for characteristic feeding marks on funnel leaves, the presence of dead hearts and holes in tunnelled stems. Ento Park, 9 Industria Street, New Industrial Area, Tzaneen, Limpopo, South Africa 0850, Copyright 2020 Insect ScienceThe Science of Entomology, Mediterranean fruit fly and Natal Fruit Fly. In case of females, the colour of forewing were light brownwhile the hind wings were cream to light yellow with pronounced dark brown bands. Wallingford, UK, CAB International. The adult female is medium sized, stout straw coloured moth coppery tinged shining scales with brown streaks. Habitat management practices that conserve these parasitoids and predators like ants and earwigs can help in the control of the spotted stemborer. Forewings of adults are long and narrow, darker than the hind wings and marked with black dashes: the basal two-thirds of the forewing is dark, with the outer third pale grey to brown; orbicular is tear-shaped; reniform has a distinct black wedge- or dagger-shaped black marking on its outer margin. Plants become unhealthy stunted and yellow. Damage may result in the yellowing, tanning, and drying up of leaves. Each egg mass contains 50-150 eggs. Larva undergoes 4 instars after about six days each at optimum temperature. They are rarely seen, during the day unless they are disturbed. Kfir R., Overholt W.A., Khan Z.R. On 8th and 9th abdominal segment, four large spots are arranged in a square shape on segment 8 and in trapezoid pattern on segment 9. In this method metabolic activities of insects and microflora act as bio generators that alter the oxygen and carbon dioxide composition of the intergranular atmosphere so that insects development is arrested. Nature of Damage FAW attacks all stages of maize crop from seedling emergence (V2) to ear development (R6). The body is smooth without conspicuous hairs. ICIPE Science Press, Nairobi, Kenya. BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: [emailprotected], Chilo partellus (Swinhoe, 1885) - Spotted Stemborer, Young caterpillars initially feed in the leaf whorl. Nature of DamageAphid sucks the sap from the whorl leaves during the vegetative stage of the crop. On hatching, nymphs emerge from eggs and start sucking the plant sap, developing to adult through five nymphal instars. Ploughing or discing fields exposes larvae in stubble to predators and drastic temperature changes which may result in a higher mortality rate. Many specialist and generalist natural enemies attack small larvae or consume stem borer eggs. Natural EnemiesEgg Parasitoid: Trichogramma pretiosum, Telenomus remusEgg-larval Parasitoid: Chelonus spLarval parasiotoid: Coccygidiumsp, Campoletis chloridaePredators: Predatory Pentatomid bugs, ear wigsEntomopathogen: Nomuraea rileyi. The adult lives for 3-4 days. Larvae feed on tender leaves and skeletonize them. Predators: Reduviids, wasps, carabid beetles, lace wings, spiders. The queen lays 70,000 to 80,000 eggs in 24 hours.

The host range of the maize stem borer is largely restricted to maize, millet, sorghum and sugarcane. The larva contains reddish brown head with predominant white, inverted Y-shaped suture between the eyes. Field guide to the stemborer, Females are bigger than males. Females were also identified by the presence of tuft of hairs on the tip of abdomen.

Features of IdentificationSpotted stem borer (Chilo partellus)is the most important insect pest of during Kharif season causing yield losses in the range of 26-80%in different agro-climatic regions of India. Various and diverse methods of managing B. fusca exist. 3. Affected parts of stem may show internally tunnelling caterpillars, Mix any of the following granular insecticides with sand to make up, If granular insecticides are not used, spray any one of the, Carbaryl 50 WP 1 kg/ha on the 20th day of sowing (500 l of spray. (ed.) Colonies of aphids found in central leaf whorl. Larvae mines the midrib enter the stem and feeds on the internal tissues. Should withstand the Sunlight, rain water and wind for 6 months (To be certified by Central Institute for Plastic Engineering and Technology).Installation: Install within a week of sowing maize, ideally before germination. Careshould be taken to avoid partially decomposed manure. The larval period is about 4 5 weeks. Spraying of 5% neem seed kernel extract for the management of early instar larvae. Anne M. Akol, Makerere University; Maneno Y. Chidege, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute; Herbert A.L. Defoliation is the primary injury to plants, but damage often exceeds the amount of foliage eaten. Preparation of Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) for one acre10 kg of neem seed kernel is required for one acre. was reported to be a serious pest in Spring maize which cause heavy plant loss if sown during third week of February to first week of March. Annual Review of Entomology, 47: 701-731. They scrape the surface but do not actually perforate it, creating a window pane effect. The larval period is about 3 weeks. Caterpillar is white in colour with yellow head. Bt maize provided successful control of stem borers in maize until the appearance of resistant populations in 2006. Natural EnemiesEgg parasitoid: Trichogramma chilonisLarval parasitoid: Cotesia flavipesPupalparasitoid: Xanthopimla stemmator, Tetrastichus howardiiPredators: Chrysoperla carnea, coccinellid, spider, ear wig, dragon fly, preying mantid, Pentatomid bug, reduviid bug, robber fly, rove beetles, wasp, king crow.2. Application of NPV solution @ 500 LE/ha orneem formulations@ 5 ml/l ofwater can be done. Mature larvae vary from greenish to greyish brown, predominantly white inverted Y- shaped suture on the head and dorsal or sub dorsal longitudinal light grey to black stripes or clear yellow stripes lines running along the entire length of the body. meristem is fed upon, the leaf whorl dries up known as dead heart and the plant usually dies and often gives rise to tillers. Timely and uniform sowing over larger area, Follow ridge and furrow planting method instead of flat bed sowing, Apply only the recommended dosage of NPK as basal dose, Seed treatment: Cyantraniliprole 19.8% + Thiamethoxam 19.8% FS @ 6 ml/kg of seed offers protection for 15-20 days of crop growth, Plant 3-4 rows of napier grass/hybrid napieras trap crop around maize fields, Erect bird perches @10/acre to encourage natural FAW predation by birds, Install pheromone traps @ 4/acre soon after sowing and monitor moth catches, Adopt clean cultivation to eliminate possible alternate hosts, Destruction of egg masses and larvae by crushing, Application of sand or soil mixed with lime in 9:1 ratio into whorl of maize plants, First spray should be with 5% neem seed kernel extract (NSKE), If monitoring indicates more than one moth/trap/day install pheromone traps @ 15/acre for mass trapping [, At 5-10% infestation whorl application of. The first indication of damage is the appearance of small windows on the youngest whorl leaves. The larva is variable in colour, sides of body with dark and light longitudinal bands; dorsal side with two dark semilunar spots laterally on each segment, except for the prothorax; spots on the first and eighth abdominal segments larger than others, interrupting the lateral lines on the first segment. The pupal period lasts for about a week. Adults live for 4-5 months. In East Africa, it may be confused with the coastal stemborer (Chilo orichalcociliellus). Larvae also migrate between plants, especially during the first few days after the eggs hatch and again 2-3 weeks later when they leave the whorl of the plant to bore into the stem. The adult moth can fly up to 500 km before oviposition. Avoid excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers. Predominant diseases of maize across India, Maize farmers advisory in COVID-19 lockdown. 4. It is now widespread throughout eastern and southern Africa and may also now occur in western Africa. Damage occurs as a series of small holes in lines (pin holes) in younger leaves and/or patches of transparent leaf epidermis (window panes) in older leaves. Nature of DamageOn hatching, the larvae feed on tender leaves in groups. Within 6 weeks, larvae develop to form soldiers or workers. Set up the TNAU low cost fish meal trap 12/ha till the crop is 30, Soil application of phorate 10%CG 10 kg/ha at the time of sowing. The young larvae of FAW feed in and around the whorl leaves by scraping and skeletonizing the upper epidermis leaving a silvery transparent membrane resulting into papery spots. Accessed February 8th 2011. They mate and lay eggs on maize plants again and continue damaging the crop. As the larvae are active at night, spraying in the evening is more advantageous. Dead heart is caused when the growth point is killed by larval feeding and results in the wilting and drying of whorl leaves. Yield losses are variable across regions, seasons, plant species and varieties and management regime on farms. The tassel, if heavily damaged might become sterile. Forewings of adult moth contain line of seven to eight blackish spots on the margin and a black comma-shaped marking in the middle underside of each forewing. The moisture content of grain should be less than 12%. Early slashing of maize stubble and laying it out on the ground where the sun's heat destroys the larvae and pupae within can also be utilised. Panicle formation is inhibited and the plants die if attack is severe. The life cycle is completed in about 3 weeks. A bright-yellow stripe along the length of the dorsal surface is characteristic of S. litura larva.The larvae feed in group when they are young but spread out as larvae grow. Grains shrink and turn black in colour and ill filled (or) chaffy. Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Seshu Reddy K.V. Stemborer team, icipe. During the dry season, larvae may enter a state of suspended development (diapause ) for several months and will only pupate with the onset of rains. Deep ploughing of infested field to kill the grubs in the soil. Females lay about 150-300 eggs and hatches in about 3 days. Holes in stem caused by larvae tunnelling into the stem can result in broken stemsordrying and eventual death of the growing point of the maize (deadheart). Crop Protection Compendium. When the rolled leaves of whorl unfurl series of pin holes and papery windows are visible, which is the first symptoms of spotted stem borer attack. Spotted stemborer. Nature of Damage Adult of moth of spotted stem borer prefers 3-5 leaf stage maize for egg laying. The adult moth measures 8-10 mm with buff coloured front wings. Nymphal development is completed in 12-15 days.

Larva -Shows colour variation from greenish to brown.