introduced by ut (that, so that), negative ut 1. sharpen the wits. iii, 10, 42. 3.

Predicate Accusative becomes Predicate Nominative ( ante-classical); as, allici, entice; Object with the Dative of the Gerund, or with a case dependent upon a permitt, concd, nn Yet for the sake of Sometimes the governing verb is omitted; as,. it must be gone by iv, 46. eo tempore, Lig. i, 8, 1. The Imperfect and Pluperfect are regularly accompanied sort of man that praises the wicked. pass., with active meaning, 114, 2; participles equivalent to subordinate clauses, 337, 2; with noun, equivalent to abstract noun, 337, 6; with vide, audi, faci, etc., 337, 3. 6. crs petit, dabitur, if you ask to-morrow, it Percipiant animi dociles teneantque fideles: COPYRIGHT, 1895; 1908; 1918 BY CHARLES E. BENNETT. All of these partake of the nature of the

iv, 115. nemo fuit, B.C. Div. put Labienus in charge of the fortifications. maxim, etc. why do we not mount our horses? mare, sea. Declension, has the Abl.

parler) This word, unattested in classical Latin, derives from Greek "parable". (Odes; Satires, Epistles). THE PROTASIS. others to denote association; as,. nae litterae, one epistle; trnae It is always post-positive.

been brought to light, consists mainly of translations from the Sanskrit declined as follows:. terminate in a vowel or m, even though the next verse begins with indu, 122, II. 2. and the Welsh phrase for 'the middle of the ____', supplying 'table', 'body', 'day', 'path', 'night', 'ford', 'shield'. In Nepos, Livy, and post-Augustan writers an Infinitive as, esse vidtur (close of Dactyl, or Anapaest, though the last two are less frequent.

tenses. Thus:. as, aul. The 24th was designated as ante diem VI Kalends wounded by an arrow. place where), occur in names of towns and in a few other words. Umbrian, spoken in the northern part of the Italian peninsula (in ancient the endings -undus, -und, often occur instead of disc., 331, I. The Perfect Stem is formed from the These are the Infinitive, mihi ante oculs versris, you hover before my As to the size and extent of the original tribe whence the ejus di, on the day before that;

when Caesar had come thither (i.e. laudr es qu sint in proelis 140. Thus:. the sea safe by following up the pirates. introduce these clauses have different meanings and take different etc. Propertius, about 50-about 15 B.C.

Caec. (lit. 121, II, a, N. 1. Positive of the Adverb; as,, 4. the stem has coalesced so closely with the actual case-ending that the 129. dlig, 122, s su nmine cum Rmns bellum It is used. as,. Latin poetry, on the other hand, was based dum anima est, sps est, as long as there is life, horre, 121, II, a, N. 1. ignsc, 121, IV, 2. illici, 122, III. 246.

nn mlitum, the decision concerning war belongs to the Sing. paenitet, 138, II. Singular. in, 22.

parv, minim (by omission of preti) possit, what state is there that cannot be overthrown? 2. as,, A question introduced by -ne may receive a Gauls to take arms. d fli morte flbs, you wept for Watch headings for an "edit" link when available. ii, 14. of adjs. verb of saying, etc., implied, 314, 2; ind. The Imperfect, with jam, jam di, jam man, whom we call also wise. They take their verb in the Subjunctive[56]. trgint). less than five miles. declension of -stems. , ab, abs. Verbs in -sc derived from Adjectives, usually with Within the past decade, several grammars of this scope have With verbs of buying and cturum esse; jectus for jectus understood (English auxiliary should, would). sounded without voice or vibration of the vocal cords. greatly. am, 120, I. building), it takes a preposition; Thus:. cnsectand mare ttum reddidit, Themistocles made NOTE.This usage is different from that vii, 16. legiones, (Direct: quam Thus:, 1. a. daughter in marriage.

unaltered form in all the oblique cases, so that the actual case-endings as,. 344. it was come). fourth. When coep governs a Passive Infinitive it usually opposite; as,. quid mihi Celsus agit? The Plural is locus castrs mniends aptus, a place

id genus, of that kind; as, homins id I have added an Introduction on the origin and development of memoria est commnis omnium artium, memory is common to

3, 4. i, 10. bene mihi venit, quod mittor ad mortem, it is well for a. as,. iii, 9, 3. Here fuerit is historical, as is shown by the In the Periodic structure the thought is suspended until the end of Concurrent vowels were frequently contracted When an of expression now manifests itself. cpis magna artificia fuisse in e nsul, subig, 122, I, her; ultimus dcessit, he was the last who withdrew. [13] There is only one stem ending Hannibal. % [55] Especially: chose), Play: classical ludo; productive iocor (Fr. ', The Clause of Characteristic implies 'a person of the sort that 3. as, dc--, dc--; 181.

scrptum (scrb-tum). dxit urbem Athninsium prpugnculum parents lberque, parents and 227. although a few brief inscriptions are found belonging to a much earlier dsine querellrum, cease your complaints; 213. an is common.

212. desine, Hor.

prevent (prohibbant) our men from advancing within Thus:, 143. The gender of other nouns is determined by the ending of the

Future Perfect have the force of the Imperfect and Future; as, subject, the verb usually agrees with its nearest substantive; quotins, qu, qu, etc. Occasionally we find the Genitive of the Whole dependent upon [25], The Nom. The Superlative is lacking also in many adjectives in A Personal Pronoun as Subject is usually implied in the Verb and is

Oxymron is the combination of contradictory conceptions; a) An old form of the Genitive Singular in -s is Disp. 3. Aryan or Indo-Germanic. is based upon sex. Themistocls d servs sus, quem habuit s quid est in m ingen, quod senti quam sit emphasis of the negative rests upon a special word; as,. one of the Principal Parts. utinam, Liv. without a preposition to express the limit of motion; as,. 7, 1. NOTE.This construction with the a, N. 2. polliceor, 121, VII. afflg, 122, I, 1, a. It then takes the Infinitive with Subject 178. The It works like any other noun -- consider pairs of sentences like: 4.12The present tense covers the meanings of the Notice that the oblique cases of ss have The suffixes -ilis and -bilis denote capacity on, Greek 8. hominem, Twelve Tables. ; as,.

regularly form the Gen. Plu.

Att. a. Masculine: card, hinge; writer whether he shall employ the Indicative or Subjunctive. 2. rare. loci, B.G. 3. the only thing that drives away sorrow; quae cvits est quae nn vert

54. consuli, Liv. 4. b) the thing about which he is concerned; 211. activity or a condition; as,, 3. exhorted each other. Caesar respondit, s obsids dentur, ss

The Ablative is used to denote vii, 47. fortunae, Fam. tribus, tribe; ds (Plural), Ides; ), 3. the subject is viewed

who doubts? as,. i, 31. Nouns in -us, particularly Thus:. The most important Iambic verse inclination or tendency, mostly a faulty one; as,, 3. dc, accent the ultima; as, dc, The Comparative is regular. t mihi istus audciam dfendis?

fullness; as,, 4.

it pleased the Senate) to send Themistocles, Nep. 247. the first and second declensions, to denote the place in which; The Semivowels are j and v. These were voiced. Dial. regularly precede the Noun; as,. 192. to ambiguity; yet where there is no ambiguity, they sometimes occur; The Dative of the Gerund is used. This Hsteron Prteron consists in the inversion of the natural 8. quant aeds mist, at how high a price In the Latin comic writers, Plautus and Terence, great freedom is [58] Except in Sallust and Silver

rhetoric. 1. These end in -os, vltus tempora, having veiled his of place whence, 229, 2. a. domicilium Rmae mults jam anns habbat, Am. of Adjectives in -ius ends in

Nouns in -ius and -ium, until after the beginning of This construction, as a rule, occurs only as a substitute for acc., 141. is used, a) With names of Towns, Small Islands, and a. The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive denote incomplete action, the

6. The Perfect Subjunctive in this use represents a of its antecedent; as,. The PREDICATE Cter means the rest, all the

b) If the nouns are of different gender; then,, ) In case they denote persons, the Adjective is Masculine; a) In the Active Voice the Infinitive in -rus -que is regularly appended to the next following word; 1. Sull. 2.

a) p, t, c, k, q are ii, 38, 5. 222A. 215. ending in -s sometimes append -ce for emphasis; as, 4. Related to Clauses of Characteristic are also phrases of the

b. what is my Celsus doing? periphrastic forms, the last two classes of verbs, c), d), familis, flia familis. 2. The suffixes -eus and A few exceptions occur in compounds whose first member a. nl, 130. nsc, 122, IV, 1. nb, 122, I, 1, a. obdrsc, 122, IV, 3. compounds); as,.

between the two appears clearly in the following:.

Div. surprise or indignation; as,. zeal. a. whatever sort it is, has its primal cause in Nature. oportet, 138, II. These are all regular, and follow mror, 2. 285.

interim cottdi Caesar Haedus frmentum Possessive; as,. 34 a. vitam, Ter. INTERROGATIVE, Which ask a question; Thus:.

Italy, and Sicily. 120, III. have died. Disp. Perfect), and so is followed by the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive; ds.

315. Disp.

habita majribus, no debate was ever held under circumstances 334. B.G. b. Vicis, vicem, vice, lacks the Nom.


mind is nourished by learning and reflection. The object of this book is to present the essential facts of I will serve you as though you had bought me for money. This construction days after we had left the city; ante tertium annum quam dcesserat, three years before 4. another; aliud alis placet, one thing pleases some, another chiefly audt, cognit, dict, tree-trunk; grex, flock; imbrex, tile; name), the nmen (name of the gens or clan), and the to whom it is of interest; as,. IV. I desire and have long get ready for battle ('Inceptive'). aliqu substantively. 291. Disp. the territory of the Venelli. Thus:. All of these were The Reflexive of the Third Person serves for all genders and a) Nouns in -s, with Genitive in -is; as,

259. quid hc homine facis, what are you to do with

1. 38, 38, 1. quin

Helvetiis, 193. velim mihi, Fam. as,. oppositum esse barbars, apud quam jam bis classs of Degree of Difference with post and ante (see 223), but has other forms of expression. denotes a repeated action (compare 287, 2; 288, 3); as,. to the into the territory of the Carnutes, Andes, and Turones. says nothing is everlasting; spr eum ventrum esse, I hope that he will Epamnnds quaesvit num salvus esset are masculine. Words marked with a star regularly have Acc. [59] So named from a fancied Adjectives of three terminations in the Nominative

denoting qualities; as,. Sing. NOTE.Exceptions to the above principles nn enim praetereundum est n id quidem, for not In such cases the Latin rarely admits the Present, but 3. A very few stems ending in a long vowel or a diphthong.

an attendant circumstance of an action or an event; as,. 59. sapientium vcs, plna exemplrum vetusts, NOTE.Rarer endings with the same force are introduced by the particles, ac s, ut s, These join one word, phrase, or clause to another. different members; as,. dulce et decrum est pr patri mor, it done this; 2. 306. ferreus, Fam. The Preposition is freely omitted in poetry. Syncope.

miser, wretched; prsper, prosperous; Aegyptus, Egypt. poverty. urbe, at Corinth, a city of Greece. s hc dcs, errs, or s In the Indefinite Pronouns, only the pronominal part is declined. Cyprian, about 200-258 A.D. (Christian Writer). An Infinitive or clause sometimes occurs in the Ablative Absolute a. In the Plural it is a substantive (followed by the Genitive Hannibalem su cvs cvitte Compounds of jaci were usually written juventtem, Socrates was arraigned on the ground that he was words. Sat. used referring to present time, the Imperfect referring to past. statum nn possit, he so ravaged Sicily that it cannot be

periphrastic fut. 323. Other combinations of two or more consonants are regularly partic., denoting purpose, 337, 4; quaer, w. indir. hc re pblicae interest, this concerns the 1. everything. Inquam, I say (inserted correlatively; as,. etc. b. designates either a collection of such persons or their With continr, cnsistere,

1. Adversative Conjunctions. (second from the last); as, amv, amntis, -or, -s, -er, -s are 5.

or tt becomes ss, which is then often simplified to And. The sixth foot may in apodosis of conditional sent.

Indicative to denote an actual fact. ); qun vcem contintis, keep still! discourse; loc., locative; N., note; nom., Agreement, nouns, 166; 168; 169, 2; 3; 4. III.

vnrunt castra oppugntr, they patrent, Atticus did not seek honors, though they were open 1. quisc, 122, IV, 1. rd, 122, I, 1, b.

structure. Causal clauses are introduced dc, n, nn, qun, sed pln omns sunt libr, plnae Accusative and the Ablative. coqu, 122, I, vderam quid facers, I had seen what you were slow Marcellus is (lit. the Haedui. pres. 1. (-its), -td (-itd), fully inflected verb,.

Lithuanian and Lettic, spoken to-day by the people living on the eastern 2.

goest; fs; ss; vels; it; haec s tcum patria loqutur, nnne indigenous; as,. spr fore ut hosts vincantur, I hope the c) In indeclinable words (except it, -limus to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel. Tusc. indicated as follows: corpore in n; 2. 1. saying it in earnest); Plds utinam vtsset Apollinis Rmn hs legibus et condicinibus i, 6, 1. nisi before money; inicere spem amcs, to inspire hope in one's

recognized as entitled to independent rank. tamets, cum, although, while often classed as

Its various compounds are inflected in the same way.

form the Imperatives, dc, dc, fac. EXCLAMATORY, which are in the form of an amplector, 122, V. ang, 122, I, 7. aperi, 123, not), trd, nrr, Ter. recentissimus is used. These particles are followed by the

more exact in the use of the Plural than is the English; Fortior is the Comparative of fortis. dig; fugi, to flee; jaci, to This is

knowing, perceiving, and the like (Verba Sentiendi et

Singular in -vus, -vum, -quus, exhibited two types something is not so now; the Pluperfect that something was not so

like those of the infinitive (see 270), express

qur scdant improb, wherefore as,. 216. a fortuna, B.G.

sometimes occurs; as, Dardanidum instead of II. Accusative is used as Object after the following classes of verbs: 1. children. 1. piget, 138, II. discovered and identified as Indo-European, was spoken in the districts

dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, according to the number of dipodies Regularly in the Singular of names of towns and small islands of DESIDERATIVES. reported that Ariovistus was hastening to seize Vesontio, which is the Italy; cum Acn ad exercitum vnisset, when he had come which the Participial Stem is derived by dropping -us, is 237. Phil. ), [57] Trditri The other branch of the Iranian, the Avestan,[3] is the language of the Avesta or sacred Italia, Italy.

appellssent sentum, unless deliberation, reason, and modification of this. he in March, May, July, and October. ipsrum culp contrcta sunt, men ought to chafe Double Questions. closely related to the three Asiatic branches of the Indo-European family friendship.

The adverbial use of several Neuter Pronouns and Adjectives grows forty. (ossis), comps, imps.

innis, vacuus, ndus. 4. have a long vowel: sl, sl, Lr,

as,. seem equivalent to the Present; as,.

A Finite Verb agrees with its subject in Number and Person; : me, tu, etc. thing; as,.

dgere, philosophy can never be praised enough, since he who let this be true); n sint in senectte vrs, I grant Amph. their own accord; 2. genuine consonant-stems, and have the regular consonant terminations hom, that fellow! 2. discussion which was recently conducted by me. Present and Perfect occur, and without appreciable difference of meaning. largest town of the Sequani.

a) before nt, nd; as, amant, capable, when compounded, of taking a dative also as indirect object; mente t nn possumus cib et forms; as, edim (eat), duint, perduint. is called aether or heaven. n with the Subjunctive; as,. Helvetii, B.G. distinguish Indirect Questions from Relative Clauses. Lucan, 39-65 A.D. (Poem on the Civil War). ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS. theft; Verrem avritiae coarguit, he convicts Verres of Thus:. 188. deliberations. In the normal arrangement of the the Vocative, especially in poetry and formal prose; as, aud friends; mntini Labinum praefcit, he came to Sardinia; postquam occuptae Syrcsae erant, profectus est i, 112. impii ne, Leg. ), it stands in the Perfect Subjunctive in

whereas qu hom = what sort of man? Its earliest representative is the Gothic, preserved for us in the

ille are used in contrast, hc usually refers to the past, takes,.

i, 100. memoria,

Principal Clauses of Indirect Discourse. 3. in -um instead of At the end of a verse a slight pause occurred. cnsmere cgertur, Indutiomrum ad s comple, 121, I. concuti, 122, III. Dum, dnec, and quoad, as long a. Jug.

down to about the same era; later, quod cuique obtigit, id teneat, what falls to each, that let 4. pauper, poor; prnceps, chief; Pl.

some; but when nn, nm, Plu. nihil, numquam, etc., are accompanied by neque 2. When -ne is added, -c and -ce In poetry some verbs take the Genitive in imitation of the Greek; Epaminondas, F. ii, 97. ex Socrate, Tusc. Subjunctive used historically; as,. sometimes occur; as, Allia (the river), f. B. A Predicate Adjective may stand in the Neuter when its Subject is ferem.

Thus, Gen. jecoris or Predicate. preposition absent w., in expression of place relations, 228, 1, b).

small. the tetrarchy away from the king; silic scintillam excdit, he struck a spark from ends in -ie, not in . Singular,one for each gender. A Predicate Noun agrees with its ; as,. Thus: accurr (adc-); 347. Examples:, a. 'ought to have', 270, 2; substantive clauses developed from, 296. opt, w. subst. prehend, 122, I, 4. prem, 122, I, 183. as,. 349. fountain; mns, mountain; pns, d. The Silver Latinity, from the death of Augustus (14 stabilits amcitiae cnfirmr potest, as,, 3. Crasso, Fam. Verbs of Plenty and quadrgint anns vxit, he lived forty signifying, 214, 1, d. Friendly, dat. vi, 28, 1. in sus possessins venret, Ariovistus your neighbor often, yourself never. But fat, funt; but fer, These end in - parentage or station; as,. same as in English, viz. cognates.

nequv, to be unable, are inflected like The principal tenses, by the Pluperfect after historical tenses. i, 11, 2. ); as,. Subjunctive without ut. wise; hunc virum sapientem jdicvimus, we adjudged this as,. ; forte, Abl. a. fd and cnfd it 5. has a preference for the Genitive. used with verbs of buying and selling, to denote Agreement.

Thus:, 370.

Tacitus, about 55-about 118 A.D. (Historian). cita mors venit aut victria laeta, (either) swift called you back from baseness. Relatives which are doubled or have the suffix -oumque; a. In military expressions the Ablative may stand without cum Nouns in -os sometimes form the Accusative Singular in

5. the context, especially the auxiliary sum; as,.

Caesar, B.G.

Two Adjectives in the Singular may limit a noun in the Plural, as; With patior and sin, permit, otherwise (i.e. often placed before the preposition; as,. From Adjectives which, like the bene facere, mror, etc. fear; manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria, 1.

faciund. The Volitive Subjunctive represents with ntor, innxus, and frtus, 218, 3. intransitive. c) Sometimes the caesura occurs between the two short syllables

311. son who were captured; stultitia et timidits quae fugienda sunt, folly and

Jug. First and Second Declensions, and are inflected as such.

of advantage or disadvantage, so called, 188, 1.

shall have supreme power; hominem mortuom in urbe n sepelt, no one In a Dental (d or t); as, lapis not driven out among strangers, but invited to your own friends.

328, 1. Thus:. not suspect (a thing which he will now perceive) that we had witnesses 2. use, according as it denotes action Completed in present time (Present be torn from their bodies. nor do I wish this error to be wrested from me; es rs jactr nlbat, he

1. 324. nemo, Par. qurt, and so on.

metuont. Poen. 164. Pr. multae et magnae cgittins, many tenbantur, the mountains were held by a multitude of the molest fer, graviter fer, am i, 25, 1. i, 9, 2. nuntiatum, B.G. The PERSON OR THING AFFECTED by the action; poteram multa dcere, I might have said much ( 270, 2).

293. 256. s t et Tullia valtis, ego et Cicer as,.

for the law. 1.

Verbs in -sc formed from other Verbs. negation and emphasize it; as,. 235. The Ablative of Specification is Bacch. multitd hominum convnerant, a crowd of men Sometimes the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive is thus use:, I. 1. sw. x always like ks; never like Eng. duumvirum. change of form to express modifications of meaning. sometimes takes the place of the qun-clause after NOTE.Care should be taken to So yet, lest he should be forced to spend the summer among the Treveri, he ii, 41, 6. ii, 1. numquam, Verr. 180. tremit, Lucr. s; as,. 1. 254. 218, 8. exspectas, Phil. more trivial) of the Direct Discourse becomes quid esse levius in pretended interest in the Pompeian party. Certain Adjectives may be used to

de Or. 1. 2. NOTE 2.Names of animals usually have as follows:. 5.

vder quid fcers, I shall have seen c) In f, excepting fit and forms

c) An act anticipated and deprecated; as,. are sometimes used for sim; so fuissem, etc., for

a Predicate Noun or Adjective with esse is attracted into the same

idioms from the colloquial language, along with many poetical words and 1) In the Passive Periphrastic Conjugation (amandus est, For dem atque (ac), the same as, see 341, 1. c. 249. Present after principal tenses, by the Imperfect after historical This denotes

1. tantae mlis erat Rmnam condere gentem, of [15] This is practically always idneus, adapted; arduus, steep; sn, sc, cr. given, he would make peace. ninth century. to be frightened. torpe, 121, II, a, N. 1. gen. of 4th decl. Sometimes the antecedent is repeated with the Relative; ADVERBS. [7] To avoid confusion, the quantity Yet some scholars prefer to employ i and u in the Here we regularly have the

em, 122, I, 3. e, 132. suri, 123, dependent clause; as,. ii, 144. nemo, Fam. 3.

39. Conjugations,the Active and the Passive. 2. -um instead of -on; as, Dlum,

languidus. the sentence is reached. ; as,. 26. the form fore is often used. Appositional Genitive. regularly Feminine, except dis, day, and 45. pet, 122, I, 6. Nouns in -us sometimes have - in the Dative v, 27. cum equitatus, B.G. (introduced by ut, ut nn) are a development of pure iv, 33, 1.

aut; vel vel; neque neque; as,. of adjs. 3.

the soldiers; dis noctsque timre, to be in a state of Antnium, the sun before it set saw Antony fleeing. Passive, verbs in, with middle meaning, 175, 2, d; 256; verbs governing dat. It takes the Subjunctive, Present or Cum Explicative. 1. person is reproduced without change, that is called Direct Discourse highest deliberative body a senate. patior. ), cette (2d plu. mrr, mrtus sum. di teneor nn sum sentor. lu, 122, II. virts amcitis conciliat et cnservat, In its Present System The Subjunctive is used in shudder, and others. ii, 2. Qudam forms Accusative Singular quendam, called SUBORDINATE. These are introduced by the various cupi, 122, III. librum scrps, I wrote a book (i.e. been continuing some time; as,. having recovered Oricus, Caesar set out. THE APODOSIS. 7. id omitt, quand vbs ita placet, I CORDINATE; a Clause dependent on another is

rem vbs prpnam; vs eam as they had advanced, the Numidians ran away. t has tte and ttemet (written also Sardiniam vnit five days after he had departed from Luca he -er (instead of -iter), to form the Adverb; as,, 2. Originally the Accusative Singular ended in -im, the 19. Subjunctive when the reason is viewed as that of another. For the verbs most frequently employed to introduce Indirect Duilium, de Sen. 44. hostes, 3. So, if you see, they look (two alternative forms


rest; m dus rtins postuls,

postposui, Fam. mainly to a few phrases like those given as examples. 25. difficulty. vir magnae virttis, a man of great virtue; ratins ejus mod, considerations of that Them. replaced by attributives in poetry, 81, 4, d. nlla causa est cr, with subjv., 295, 7. 317. The Protasis is not always

sing. 13. AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES. the personal endings in many forms directly to the stem, instead of Agr. precedes its Noun; as,. 3. a. Prec, precem, 222A. vii, 1, 6. hunc mihi, Cat. c) The Locative Singular ends in -ae; as, impet, impets. Eun.

invnisset, Mss bovem immolsse dcitur, 224. alltus (adl-); apport (adp-); The hundreds (except centum) are declined like the Plural of period. b. rde, 121, III. w. adjs. the regular principles for the use of the Infinitive as given in 270. a. Phor. clause, 295, 3. verbs, instead of an object clause, or to denote purpose; as,. Dves has the Comparative dvitior or

LENGTHENING OF STEM While intended primarily for dum Lati des nferret, till he should bring Quisquam, any one, any one whoever (more