Nevertheless, an interview is a time-consuming process and very costly.
52. Scholarly Horizons: U Minnesota, Morris Undergraduate J. They are customers at the supermarkets who can provide such information as packing sizes, freshness, and prices of vegetables. Phnom Penh: The Asia Foundation; 2015. Research methods and statistics a critical thinking approach. Healthline. 2015;7(6)64576477. Revenue over cost through the use of composting, anaerobic digestion, and domestic biodigesters. [cited 8 December 2018]. The promotion of overconsumption and food waste: A critical discourse analysis of supermarket flyers. "We also ask people not to burn their straw anymore, but to plough and bury this waste," he said. Population growth rate = 0.0146% per year. Ho KS, Chu LM. They are mainly from preparation processes and inappropriate packing sizes. Secondary and primary data are gathered to be used for the dynamics model development. World-Population-Review. Sukholthaman P, Sharp A. 58. Dyson B, Chang N. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling. Secondary and Primary Data Used in the Dynamics Model Development, Long-term food waste management in Phnom Penh utilizing a system dynamics modeling approach, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/, https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jsmcwm/23/0/23_615/_pdf, https://nomadicboys.com/cambodian-beef-lok-lak-recipe/, https://www.iknow.com.kh/knowledge/detail/?knowID=db3400f68083bf308bcafd67253afaa2.53184, http://www.bongpet.com/2016/10/00066.html, https://www.awanderingfoodie.com/salaw-machu-kroeung/, powerknot.com/2013/05/19/lfc-and-anaerobic-digestion/, https://energypedia.info/wiki/Types_of_Biogas_Digesters_and_Plants, http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/cambodia-population/, https://waste-management-world.com/a/what-factors-lead-to-food-waste, http://justfooderp.com/blog/five-strategies-for-food-waste-reduction-at-manufacturing-and-processing-facilities/, https://scholar.cu.edu.eg/?q=mahmoudarafa/files/inventory_management_-_3.pdf, https://www.Myaccountingcourse.com/accounting-dictionary/fifo-first-in-first-out, https://www.eufic.org/en/food-safety/article/reducing-food-waste-yes-we-can-qa?gclid=Cj0KCQjwxNT8BRD9ARIsAJ8S5xYKY0Z5oH7dj4ICX5F5fOAWl4GowbCWBtuUoie_AtKaFZm5eJ5UehQaAsi5EALw_wcB, https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/reduce-food-waste#section1, https://blog.winnowsolutions.com/how-governments-around-the-world-are-encouraging-food-waste-initiatives. The secondary and primary data related to key factors that affect food waste (based on household and retailer perspectives) are summarized, as shown in, In this study, the SD modeling approach is used to develop the dynamics model of food waste management in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The rate of waste generation per capita in Phnom Penh was more than 0.74 kg/d/person in 2003, and is expected to increase to 1.24 kg/d/person by 2030 [, In Cambodia, popular dishes that are usually cooked always contain vegetables, which are cheap and always on promotions. The causes of food waste in the supplierretailer interface: Evidences from the UK and Spain. Various packing sizes may help to reduce wastes [38, 42]. PHNOM PENH, Dec. 14 (Xinhua) -- Cambodia has issued a directive to ban people living in rural areas from burning paddy straw and garbage in their fields to reduce air pollution, the Khmer Times reported on Monday. 7 tips to reduce your food waste [Internet]. Use of a biodigester could save up to 57% of electricity cost. A change, including its effects, may cause another change (referred to as a dynamic change); this may affect the whole system. Manoa: University of Hawaii; 2012. Large-sized family shopping frequencies are 29%, 48%, and 23% for once a week, twice a week, and everyday shopping, respectively. 5. Examples of interview questions are How many members live in your house?, How often do you go to shop per week?, How many meals do you usually cook per day, What are the dishes you usually cook at home?, What vegetables do you usually purchase?, and What are the packing sizes of vegetables that you usually purchase?. 13. Joshi P, Visvanathan C. Sustainable management practices of food waste in Asia: Technological and policy drivers. It allows a researcher to record verbal responses and any facial or bodily expressions. Waterlander WE, Steenhuis IH, De Boer MR, Schuit AJ, Seidell J. The use of smaller-size packs (250 g and 350 g) also helps to minimize food wastes. [cited 14 November 2019]. Phnom Penh: Research and Innovation Center, Institute of Technology of Cambodia; 2017. The use of domestic biodigester is based on the assumption that the savings in electricity cost (by using biodigesters) is higher than the investment in the biodigester system. Fifteen factors that influence food waste management are used for the development of the dynamics model of food waste management. Spoann V, Fujiwara T, Seng B, Lay C. Municipal solid waste management: Constraints and opportunities to improve capacity of local government authorities of Phnom Penh capital. A flow chart of the dynamics model development is shown in, Based on the interview results, households are separated into small-sized, Food waste may also occur during the preparation processes. Int J Behav Nutrition Physic Activity. Secondary data are collected from waste-related journals, such as Waste Management, Environmental Engineering Research, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, and Environmental and Waste Management. 70. This study provides guidelines for food waste management in Phnom Penh in the long term. This study has some limitations. A system dynamics model to evaluate effects of source separation of municipal solid waste management: A case of Bangkok, Thailand. J Environ Manage. Abdel-Shafy HI, Mansour MSM. Resour Conserv Recycl. Current ratio of small to large families is 58:42. Simulation results of waste from preparation when different percentages of waste occur in the preparation processes. 56. Available from: 23. Waste Manag. Int J Environ Sci Natural Resour. Segr A, Falasconi L, Politano A, Vittuari M. Background paper on the economics of food loss and waste. 33. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Ministry of Planning; 2013. The capital investment of a composting plant is about 10 times lower than that of an anaerobic digestion plant [16, 17]. The total waste amount is used to calculate the total number of biodigesters that are needed in the system (see. The results, as shown in. Master dissertation. 66. Kum V, Sharp A, Harnpornchai N. Improving the solid waste management in Phnom Penh city: A strategic approach. Householders may not be able to consume the products with this promotion before their expiration dates [28, 37, 4347]. 60. 48. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2011. 46. Examples of interview questions are What are the promotion schemes used in the supermarkets?, What are common packing sizes of vegetables?, What types of stock rotation methods are used at this supermarket?, What are common order quantities of vegetables at this supermarket?, and What food waste policy is implemented in this supermarket?. Chemical Eng Transactions. Different techniques, such as only buy what you need, use what you have, avoid serving too much, share extra food with others, and repurpose waste where possible, may help to reduce the amount of food waste [. Sustainability. A representative from a well-known retailer in Chamkamon and Daun Penh districts was also interviewed to gain data for the dynamics model development. 1. Hoklis C, Sharp A. Greenhouse gas emission from municipal solid waste in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Stock rotation: The first-in-first-out method is commonly used with short-life products, including fruits and vegetables . Anaerobic digestion and biodigesters [Internet]. This requires strong support from the upstream to the downstream of waste management. The interviews and observations were conducted at supermarkets for a two-month period, during June-July, 2018. 2016;52:5061. 19. The response rates are generally high . Winnow; [cited 26 October 2020]. [cited 8 December 2018]. This saves the disposal cost, reduces the environmental impact, and generates revenue for the community (see, Closer examination of the simulation results reveals that householders are a major source of food waste. The interviewees were householders and retailers living in Chamkamon and Daun Penh districts. Composting: A small-scale composting plant is operated by the Cambodian Education and Waste Management Organization. Proper food waste management is needed in Phnom Penh, as the city has generated more wastes, leading to landfill scarcity and environmental problems. "When I saw the Ministry of Environment's directive, I regretted my actions and now I think that burning rice straw, forest fires and burning plastic waste makes air pollution," Chany said. Supplementary material, such as audio/video materials, can be used to increase the respondents understanding of questions. 64. Aschemann-Witzel J, De Hooge L, Amani P. Consumer-related food waste: Causes and potential for action. The dynamics model of food waste management is then developed, based on the collected secondary and primary data. Sdeung Chany, a resident living in Kampong Speu province's Kong Pisey district, said every morning she cleaned her house and burned some plastic garbage because she thought that burning a little amount of waste was not bad for the environment. Landfilling: Landfilling is a common practice in Cambodia [8, 12]. JustFood. T.C. This study examines food waste management in the long term, utilizing the system dynamics (SD) modeling approach. 28. 15. Researchers can ask follow-up questions to achieve more reliable data. Available from: 27. Every 1 t of food waste can produce 0.2 t of finished and mature compost. Kum V. The bioeconomic impact of altering Mekong water flow on Tonle Sap fisheries of Cambodia: A system dynamics study. Master dissertation. A total of 119 householders were included in the interviews. Cambodia population 2019 [Internet]. The amount of waste transported to the Dangkor landfill has increased by an average of 12% per year. Available from: Flow chart of the dynamics model development. 65. Phnom Penh: The Asia Foundation; 2015. France: Hal; 2015. Anirban M. The economics of food wastage at the consumer end. Available from: 16. Available from: 43. 2013;114:216224. If the biodigesters are purchased, then they are used for two years, reflecting their product life. Large-sized family has 5 or more members. PhD dissertation. Seoul, Korea: Global Green Growth Institute; 2020. Hul S, Kouk F, Soy T. Solid waste generation and life-span with credible growth forecast waste generation, volume and composition. Working Paper UMR Moisa 2014-5. 28.7% of interviewees cook 1 dish/meal, 69.3% of the interviewees cook 2 dishes/meal, and 2% of the interviewees cook 3 dishes/meal. Working Paper. Other possible promotions may be simulated in future studies to examine the amount of food waste, and suggest appropriate promotion to be used in the supermarkets. The authors thank AEON Cambodia Co., LTD for approving a survey entry permit. Shopping frequency is separated into once a week, twice a week, and everyday shopping. [, In Cambodia, a number of studies have been conducted in the area of waste management. Common packing sizes interviewees select are 250 g, 350 g, and 500 g packs, representing 13.4%, 28.6%, and 58% of the total responses, respectively. The effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables: Results of a randomized trial in a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. 18. The total household demand for vegetables last week is compared with the last-week quantity. J Environ Manag. There is a need to investigate the interactions and causal relationships among key food waste management factors. J Clean Prod. They were asked 18 questions related to 12 key factors that affect food waste. Chaerul et al. 37.7% of interviewees cook only 1 meal/d, while 62.3% of interviewees cook 2 meals/d. Is the family size of parents and children still related? Hul S, Kouk F, Soy T. Solid waste generation and life life-span with credible growth forecasts waste generation, volume and composition. Electricity cost = 0.21 USD/kWh, on average. 57. A personal interview was also performed in this study to collect primary data. The model consists of sub-models for household waste, retailer waste, composting, anaerobic digestion, domestic biodigesters, and landfilling. Rome, Italy: Universit di Bologna; 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2020.603, School of Management Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Tiwanont Road, Bangkadi, Muang, Pathum Thani, 12000 Thailand, Copyright 2022 Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, Composting, Domestic bio-digester, Food waste management, System dynamics modelling, Vegetables. Global food losses and food waste. Sang-Arun J, Heng CK, Pasomsouk K, Sharp A. Egyptian J Petrol. They were males and females with ages ranging from 20 to 35 years old. [cited 2 November 2020]. "Please do not burn straw, it can be buried in a compost pit to turn into fertilizer.". Arafa M. Inventory management [Internet]. 47. Key factors affecting food waste management often involve changes, such as changes in population, packing sizes, order quantities, and management policies. 3. Retailers mentioned that the waste collectors come to collect food waste, and the leftover food waste is disposed of in a landfill. 55. 2nd editionLondon: Thousand Oaks; 2005. 2017;125:107114. Most household wastes are from food preparation and mismatches of packing sizes (see, Based on the interviews, possible packing sizes range from 250 g to 500 g. Different packing sizes are then added to the sensitivity analysis to examine the suitable packing sizes that reduce the total food waste. Anaerobic digestion: Anaerobic digestion produces biogas (consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide) and digestate. Future researches could be made, focusing on fruits, meats, and other types of food, to cover various types of food waste. This study encourages the use of composting, anaerobic digestion, or domestic biodigesters to manage food waste, to reduce the amount of waste disposed of in landfills. According to Nomadicboys [, Based on the literature, four methods are commonly used in food waste management in Cambodia include composting, anaerobic digestion, use of biodigesters, and landfilling [, Composting is a technique to enhance the degradation of organic matter under aerobic conditions [. 2010;30(11)21942203. Promoting sustainable use of waste biomass in Cambodia, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, and Thailand: Combining food security, bio-energy, and climate protection benefits. IKnow. SD modeling can facilitate the testing of alternative strategies to manage food waste without actually having to implement them. The use of a biodigester could save up to 57% of the electricity cost [30, 51, 52]. The cost of implementing the anaerobic digestion is compared with the digestate sales, savings in tipping fees or disposal costs at a landfill, and electricity savings, to make decisions on anaerobic digestion implementation (see, Biodigesters may be used before transferring food waste to landfills. 45. This study shows key factors affecting food waste management, and provide strategies to effectively manage food waste and reduce the environmental impacts in Phnom Penh in the long term. In this study, therefore, the main vegetables that are used in popular dishes are considered as the sources of food waste. Available from: 25. Cost benefit analysis of composting and anaerobic digestion in a community: A review. Households, retailers, local authorities, and governments may use this study to cooperate and initiate food waste management programs to reduce the amount of waste, and raise the environmental standards of the community. Le Borgne G, Sirieix L, Costa-Migeon S. Food waste and promotions. Promotion used in this study is buy 4 get 1 free scheme, which is applied in the last two days of a vegetables lifespan. IGES Policy Report-2011-06. Order quantity: The proper order quantity, especially with short-life products, helps retailers to reduce waste [43, 44]. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Ministry of Planning; 2019. 40. 2018;27:12751290. 29. Thus, SD modeling can be used to deal with these dynamic changes. Available from: 14. This study considers two sources of waste, household and retailer wastes. In this study, the SD modeling approach is used in the dynamics model development, based on the following reasons. Secondary data are collected from various sources, such as international journals, company reports, and government-related websites. Mongtoeun et al. Shelf life: Fruits and vegetables have a short life, with an average of one week . In this study, a small-scale, manually operated composting plant is considered, and organic fertilizer is made and sold in the community. Sharon F. Five strategies for food waste reduction at manufacturing and processing facilities [Internet]. NBP National biodigester programme [Internet]. 17. 34. However, some promotions, such as buy 4 get 1 free and buy 1 get 1 free may result in higher food wastes. They include household and retailer perspectives of food waste. Edmonton: University of Alberta; 2016. Wastes, if over the biodigesters capacity, are sent to landfills. How to avoid food waste-food preparation. 2018;4(2)113126. Australia: Hunter Councils Environment Division; 2015. 68. Households should consider waste generation before purchasing food. [. Demography. 32. 2. This study reviews food waste management in Cambodia and other countries to extract key factors affecting food waste management. 41. It takes organic material from a variety of sources, including food waste, producing biogas to be used to produce heat and electricity [, In this study, the digestate is from anaerobic digestion, and every 1 tonne of food waste can produce 0.2 tonne of fertilizer [, The main landfill site in Phnom Penh is in Dangkor district, where wastes from households, industries, and hospitals are dumped. Kumar R. Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. "We expect people and the relevant authorities to participate by reducing the amount of waste they burn in rural areas or on plantations and land concessions because all this burning builds up air pollution, even the smallest particle circulates in the atmosphere and can seriously affect breathing," the newspaper quoted Pheaktra as saying.
What is FIFO (first-in, first-out)? Biogas can be used to generate electricity and heat, while the digestate produced can be used as compost or further processed as fertilizer . Seng B, Fujiwara T, Seng B. Suitability assessment for handling methods of municipal solid waste. This causes a large amount of food waste. Mart-Herrero J. Some promotions, however, may result in waste from promotion. Available from: 24. Electricity production from biogas is 427.56 kWh/ton. itnik M, Vidic T. Food among waste. [cited 24 November 2020]. 39. 2005;25(7)669679. 53. United States: Michigan State University; 2015. Canada: Simon Fraser University; 2016. 26. S.T. 8. There are two types of observations from participants and non-participants [. Retailers mentioned that common promotions used in the supermarket include on-sale products, products with special prices, and close-to-expiration-date product sales. Phnom Penh, the capital city of Cambodia, has a high growth rate, with an average rate of increase of 12.4% [, The composition of MSW varies significantly from one municipality to another and from country to country. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2019;20(1)2427. Shelf life of one week is considered in this study to reflect the life span of most vegetables. Total, household, and retailer food wastes. In addition, participants may be more likely to give socially desirable responses because this is deemed appropriate by society [. The simulation results also suggest the use of biodigesters, to convert food waste to energy and reduce landfill waste in the long term. The respondents can ask for questions to be clarified. Bandith S. Analysis and modeling of household solid waste generation, handling, and management in Phnom Penh, Cambodia [dissertation]. Enditem, 010020070750000000000000011100001395887881. Simulation results of waste from packing size when different packing sizes are considered. Final Report for APN Project. Sang-Arun J, Heng CK, Rithy U, Phalla S. A guide for technology selection and implementation of urban organic waste utilization projects in Cambodia. Revisiting the cross-generational relationship over the last century. [cited 24 November 2020]. Chaerul M, Tanaka M, Shekdar A. Open market is also not considered in this study, as it is hard to measure exact amount of waste. Mena C, Adenso-Diaz B, Yurt O. Aktas E, Sahin H, Topaloglu Z, Oledinma A, Huda AKS, Irani Z, Sharif AM, Wout T, Kamrava M. A consumer behavioral approach to food waste. This saves money by eliminating costs (by not implementing a strategy). A Wandering Foodie. 31. Cha tra kurn preng kjong (in Thai) [Internet]. Phnom Penh: Council for the Development of Cambodia; 2011. The model is simulated, and the simulation results show the trends of food waste in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in the long-term. Small-sized family shopping frequencies are 19%, 58%, and 23% for once a week, twice a week, and everyday shopping, respectively. New consumers behaviours in the sharing economy: An experimental analysis on food waste reduction. [cited 26 November 2020]. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management. Nomadicboys. Pheaktra said to prevent air pollution in the country, the ministry is taking action with five measures, including preventing wildfires, improving road infrastructure, removing dust on roads and roadsides, educating people not to burn garbage, solid waste, grass, rice straw or other agricultural waste, and preparing preventive measures for forest fires. During this period, no more biodigesters are added to the system. Chen YT. Waste Manag Res. Waste Manag. In this study, 15 factors influencing food waste management are extracted from the waste-related literature and used for the development of the dynamics model of food waste management. 20 easy ways to reduce your food waste [Internet]. Local communities, local authorities, and governments can use this study to plan for long-term food waste management, to reduce food waste and mitigate landfill problems. Resour Conserv Recycl. It has advantages as follows. The price range of vegetables is 1.04 to 1.65 USD per kg, on average. Morone P, Falcone PM, Imbert E, Morone M, Morone A. 63. Fakhry [, Many research studies have been conducted in the area of waste management, including food waste management. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations; 2019. Available from: 50. Schanes K, Dobernig K, Gzet BJ. 2018;36(10)985992. Yuen M. Cambodian food: How to make salaw machu kreung [Internet]. 2018;22(6)489500. First-in-first-out rotation method is used in this study. Food waste matters-A systematic review of household food waste practices and their policy implications. The use of smaller packing sizes of less than 350 g might help to reduce the amount of food waste. 2014;l8:7378. Hard data (objective-oriented, formal, and quantitative), such as the number of people, family sizes, and shopping frequencies, and soft data (learning-oriented, intuitive, and qualitative), such as promotion schemes and stock rotation, can be used in dynamics model development. Biodigester: A biodigester converts food waste into energy. [, The total food waste may be processed with anaerobic digestion to generate digestate and electricity, to be used in the community or sold to make a profit. These nonverbal responses may give the researcher greater insight into the respondents true opinions and beliefs. CDC. 2019;247:538550. Providing knowledge and tips for coaching might help to reduce the amount of food waste. 4. Vegetables may be cut and peeled for the edible parts, leading to more trash. Waste Manag. Republic of Slovenia: The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia; 2016. Chow NT. Shopping frequency: Food waste may be reduced when householders shop more often. Seng B, Hirayama K, Katayama-Hirayama K. Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia. Examples of data are the number of people, family sizes, and prices.