Leaf damage. 2008.

If the infestation is restricted to the field margin, use a border treatment. Moths fly at night and lay their eggs on maize plants between the leaf sheath and the stem on the youngest fully unfolded leaf. Tassels may be deformed, and silking may be delayed, which can result in yield losses. They may feed on soybeans as well, but they are not an economically important pest of soybeans. Photo by James Kalisch, University of Nebraska. Field and laboratory trials with simple neem products as protectants against pests of vegetables and field crops in Togo. . A leading agrochemicals, seeds and farm equipments company in Africa. Wadhams, N.Dibogo, A. Ndiege, G.Genga, and C. Luswetti. Stalk borer is native to North America and present in most places east of the Rocky Mountains. 42: 471479. Many plants will have an unnatural growth, being twisted or bent over, presenting a stunted appearance and will not produce an ear. Because it is dirty white in color, it is more difficult to recognize. Figure 6. Mathee, J.J. 1974. Fields with a history of stalk borer injury are at higher risk since stalk borers tend to re-infest the same fields. 1960. For more information on stalk borer biology and management, see Stalk Borer Ecology and Integrated Pest Management in Corn, a 2010 article by Marlin Rice and Paula Davis in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management. products (powder from ground neem seeds) are reported to be effective and may be applied to the leaf whorl in a 1:1 mixture with dry clay or sawdust; 1 kg of powder should be sufficient to treat 1,5002,000 plants. Stem damage. Khadioli, N., Z.E.H Tonnang, G.O. More eggs are laid on the trap plant than on the crop, but the larvae develop poorly or not at all on the trap plant. The annual population growth potential varies AI>36 (Fig. 4C). With fast-acting burn-down herbicides, the insecticide, if compatible, can be tank-mixed with the herbicide or applied 1 to 2 days following the application of the herbicide. However, higher changes are expected in midland and highland areas of East and Southern Africa (Fig. 2014. For example: managing weeds within the field, such as smooth bromegrass or giant ragweed, especially if they are still growing late in the season when moths lay eggs; or mowing, burning, or using herbicides on grasses and weeds in field margins, terraces, and waterways. This normally occurs at about 1,400 degree days. borer stalk pest noctuidae ecology lepidoptera integrated corn management 4B). 2011. Begin scouting corn when 1,300-1,400 DD have accumulated. Greenlife Crop Protection Africa. Stalk borers are distributed throughout the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Pupation occurs in the soil and moths emerge in August, September and early October. Figure 4. Eggs can be found on dead vegetation inside curled leaves or tucked between the sheath and stem. 2005a. Le Ru, N. Mujica, & P. Carhuapoma, Maize stalk borer, African maize stalk borer, sorghum stalk borer (English), Perceur de la tige du mas (French), Maisstengelbohrer (German). 5C). A stalk borer has the capability to over winter and can thus live for relatively longer periods. Updated degree day data are available at https://mesonet.unl.edu/page/data. The AI indicates the potential population growth throughout the year. Of greater importance is the migration of the larvae from initial host to corn. Leaf feeding alone does not cause economic damage. Figure 3. Stalk borer (Busseola fusca) is the most important insect pest to most cereal crops e.g., maize in Africa, especially in Kenya. The grayish moth, with or without silver spots on the forewings, appears in mid-August and September. Egg-laying sites usually are in fence rows, terraces, and waterways, but can be found throughout a field if preferred hosts are available. When grass-type plants are not disturbed by tillage, stalk borer eggs may be present throughout the field and subsequent damage will not be limited to field margins. Determine the need for treatment when 1,400-1,700 DD have accumulated. Eggs laid on grassy-type weeds in the field are usually destroyed by tillage. Silvain. Young stalk borer larva. Several available Bt corn hybrids provide control or suppression of common stalk borer larvae. Calatayud, and J.F. Yield losses attributed to stalk borers areas high as about 40%.

They may also feed on soybean, though they are not considered economically important. Small grains (rye or wheat) planted as a cover crop may also be a potential egg laying site. We need to learn how to defend our crops against these enemies to the best of our abilities. Maize is the most widely produced crop in South Africa, grown extensively in the Free state, Mpumalanga, and the North West as well as most other provinces but in smaller expanses. and a trap plant, such as Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) Le Ru, unpublished data). Long-distance spread is through translocation of stems and residues from one location to another where they are used as animal feed. Distribution, pest status and agro-climatic preferences of lepidopteran stem borers of maize in Kenya.

Fields must be inspected twice a week. Grass cover crops (e.g., rye or wheat) may be attractive egg-laying sites for female moths. However, they help control to reduce pest densities as part of an integrated pest management approach that includes habitat management practices that conserve parasitoids and predators like ants and earwigs. Look for feeding damage and dissect damaged plants to see if live larvae are present. Make sure that you are always aware of what is going on in your field.

Stapf, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, and Arundo donax (L.)]. In this article, we will briefly outline the challenges of dealing with Stalk borer in our maize crops.

But during dry and/or cold weather conditions, the larvae can enter a period of suspended development (diapause) of 6 months or more in stems and other plant residues. Tracking degree days and scouting the field can determine whether larvae are present and still migrating. Upon hatching, the larvae of the parasitic wasp feed internally in the stemborer, which cause it to die. To be effective, insecticides must be applied before common stalk borer larvae have entered the stalk. Two of the most abundant natural enemies of the African maize stalk borer are the larval parasitoids Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and Bracon sesamiae Cameron. For more information on stalk borer biology and management, read a Journal of Integrated Pest Management article by Rice and Davis (2010), called Stalk borer ecology and IPM in corn. This publication contains many photos of stalk borer injury in corn and soybean and is a good reference guide.

3DF). Infestations by stalk borers causes significant losses. A reduction by a factor of 13 is predicted for most parts of SSA lowlands, whereas an increase by a factor of 13 is predicted in most African highlands, particularly in East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania) and Angola (Fig. as a border crop to protect maize from stemborers. In the event of a Toxic or Transport Emergency, call our 24hr toll free number 0800720021 or 0800730030. Ongamo, G.O., B.P. They feed on the terminal leaf whorls leading to production of a characteristic pattern of small holes. The farmer will use an insecticide intended for control of stalk borer and broadcast it by using a boom spray. It is therefore of great importance to control this pest in order to avoid these losses. Biocontrol cereal pests in Africa. A variety of foliar insecticides are effective against common stalk borers in corn. Based on research at Iowa State University, stalk borer egg hatch begins at about 575 DD and ends at 750 DD (Table 1). She has a general background in integrated pest management (IPM) for field crops. Adaptation to risk avoidance at farm level. In this country, we rely on maize as our staple diet. www.icipe.org. The GI is projected to vary between 3 and 5 generations per year in most of the maize cultivation areas.

National Museums of Kenya, Makerere University, BioNET-EAFRINET, CABI & The University of Queensland (September 2011) keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/EAFRINET. 2006. Female stalk borer moths lay eggs on grasses (e.g., smooth bromegrass or rye and wheat cover crops) and ragweed during late summer and early fall. The ERI>0.95 reflects the B. fusca current distribution in SSA (Fig.

Where rainfall is irregular, a liquid neem seed extract can be sprayed into the funnel. Mango Gall Midge and all you need to know, Practicing crop protection with non-host plants, Proper weed management in order to ensure the insect cannot hide in the weeds. Corn Insect Control Recommendations: E-series 219-W (PDF). Fully grown larvae are uniformly gray and up to 2 inches long (Photo 3). Stalk borers can cause damage throughout a field where reduced tillage is practiced and/or where cover crops are used. Female stalk borer moths lay their eggs primarily on grasses such as smooth brome or ragweed in late summer and early fall. Eggs are laid from late August until frost on grasses and some broadleaf weeds. In cases where stalk borers begin feeding on grassy weeds or other vegetation in field edges, control is most effective if timed between 1,400 and 1,700 degree days (base 41F), which corresponds to the first half of the period when stalk borers are migrating from weedy hosts into corn. Therefore, to get rid of stalk borers, the following insecticides are highly recommended; NB; Always mix the insecticide with Integra 3ml/20l whenever spraying. 2005b.

Invasive plants of East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania), Lucid v. 3.5 key and fact sheets. Changes in abundance (GI, damage potential) and activity (AI, potential population growth) of the maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca, in maize production systems worldwide according to model predictions, using the GI (A, B) and the AI (D, E) for the years 2000 and 2050, and the absolute index change (C, F). State & National Extension Partners. . 3. Effects of grain legumes and cover crops on maize yield and plant damage by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the humid forest of southern Cameroon. In no till fields, they stay in grass stems. Since eliminating weeds can often make stalk borers move into corn, using a burndown herbicide and insecticide combination is effective, either tank-mixed or in a split application. The percentage mortality of eggs, larvae, and pupae decreased at temperatures of 1525C and increased thereafter. CABI Crop Protection Compendium: http://www.cabi.org/cpc/ Accessed on 20/11/2013. 3A). The pupal stage lasts approximately 3 weeks (range 16-40 days). However, stalk borer feeding results in larger and more ragged holes than European corn borer (Photo 4). It is a sticker, spreader and penetrant. However, the most effective method is the use of chemicals (insecticides). Article submitted by Gavin Mathews, Bachelor in Environmental Management. Entomol.

Early instar stalk borers can be controlled before they enter the plant if a sufficient number of plants show leaf feeding. Copyright 2022 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Effects of nitrogen and potassium combinations on yields and infestations of maize by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Humid Forest of Cameroon. Intercropping maize with non-hosts crops like cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) or legumes like cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. In Tanzania and Kenya, losses of about 12% of maize grain for every 10% plants infested by B. fusca were reported.

In Uganda, an ERI>0.95 is indicated for the complete maize cultivation area, with 35 generations per year. Third instar larvae tunnel into stems where they feed for 35 weeks before pupating within the stem tunnels. Instead, a slight range expansion is potentially expected in highland maize production areas of East Africa and in Southern Africa (Fig. When mortality of females before reproduction was considered, the net reproductive rate (Ro) was highest at 22.5C, with around 44.9 female offspring/female. The highest population growth can be expected at 24.5C (rm = 0.0496). Once you have finished scouting the field you should try and quantify the damage into a percentage which will help you determine if it would make economic sense to spray a chemical control measure. The activity index (AI) indicates the potential population growth throughout the year. doi:10.1080/ 00379271.2006.10700620. Risks mapping under current and future climates, Changes in establishment and future distribution. Ongamo, T. Achia, I. Kipchirchir, J. Kroschel, and B. The larvae are not highly mobile and typically only move into the first four to six rows of corn near their overwintering site. Photo 4. The mean longevity significantly decreased with increasing temperature, with 12.4 and 11.7 days at 15C and 4.7 and 4.4 days at 30C for females and males, respectively. Cultural: Female moths prefer to lay eggs in weedy areas or grass cover crops in August and September, so any weed management that limits or eliminates grasses in or around the field can be effective. In South Africa, B. fusca infestation results in yield losses of 10100%. Female B. fusca moths lay eggs in a row between the stem and leaf sheath (Photo 2A). Host-plant parts affected are leaves, stems, and cobs (maize) as well as inflorescences of maize, sorghum, millet, and wild grasses. The idea is that the herbicide will kill the grass and force larvae to move, and they will be killed by the residual insecticide. In addition to attacking corn, stalk borers attack over 100 other species of plants, including ornamentals, garden vegetables, broadleaf weeds, and grasses. It belongs to the Noctuidae family of moths, which includes the cutworms and armyworms.

This pest attacks cereal crops. Look for feeding damage and larvae that are still in the whorl. The trap plant attracts the adult female. Annals of Applied Biology 165(3): 373386. Corn between the two- and eight-leaf stages can be attacked by the migrating stalk borer larvae. No rescue treatments are available for stalk borer because insecticides will not reach them once they have bored into the stalk. Always read the label and product information before use. Changes in establishment and potential distribution of the maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca, in African maize production systems according to model predictions, using the ERI for the years 2000 (A) and 2050 (B), and changes of the ERI between 2000 and 2050 (C). Stalk borer development (growing degree days, base 41F)and associated activity. Older larvae tunnel extensively into stems and eat out long frass-filled galleries, which may weaken stems and cause them to break (Photo 1C). There is a single generation each year. Relationships of intercropped maize, stem borer damage to maize yield and land-use efficiency in the humid forest of Cameroon. Larvae migrate to nearby corn plants to complete development either when they outgrow the stems or those plants are terminated (mechanically or chemically). Walp.) The total mean development time decreased with increasing temperature, from 223.9 days at 15C to 72.5 days at 25C, and then increased slightly to 81.3 days at 35C. The best method to identify whether there is a Stalk borer infestation in your maize, is to scout and inspect your land. can reduce African maize stalk borer damage. Eggs hatch into caterpillars, which move into the growing points, where they start to feed. Figure 2. An action threshold of 10% infested plants has been recommended. Scouting grasses at the edge of the field at this time may help one identify a potentially damaging infestation. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 108: 1728. Primary host plants are maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum [Sorgum bicolor (L.) Moench]; finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn] and pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) Leeke] constitute secondary host plants. Later, when the larvae become too large for the stem, or the plants are destroyed, they will abandon the plant. The relation between infestation by the stalk borer Busseola fusca and yield of maize in East Africa. Because stalk borers tend to reinfest the same fields, long-term management of grassy areas or grassy weeds is usually required. Larvae have prolegs along the abdomen and are up to 40 mm long and 5 mm wide. The grey moth is the male and the white moth is the female. B. fusca is absent in the coastal areas of Kenya and Tanzania. Applying insecticides after larvae have entered the stalk is not effective. National Museums of Kenya, Makerere University, BioNET-EAFRINET, CABI & The University of Queensland (September 2011). B. fusca is listed as one of the important crop pests in the CABI Crop Protection Compendium. Leaf feeding first appears as irregular rows of holes in the newly unfolding leaves, similar to whorl-feeding by European corn borer. Stalk borer larvae feed on leaves in the whorl of corn plants before tunneling into the stalk (Photo 5).

Photo by Mark Dreiling, Bugwood.org. If weedy grasses were common throughout the field in the previous year, the whole field may need to be scouted for common stalk borers.

DC.] Record the number of plants infested and determine the location of the worms, such as in the whorl, stalk, etc. Le Ru. Southern Africa (at elevations above 900 masl): Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe.