Our results indicate lethal and repellent effects of garlic extracts on T. castaneum. Govere J, Durrheim DN, Baker L, Hunt R, Coetzee M: Efficacy of three insect repellents against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis. USEPA: Pesticide Registration Standard for N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). 1998, 59: 323-324. Maia, M.F., Moore, S.J. Tuetun B, Choochote W, Kanjanapothi D, Rattanachanpichai E, Chaithong U, Chaiwong P, Jitpakdi A, Tippawangkosol P, Riyong D, Pitasawat B: Repellent properties of celery, Apium graveolens L., compared with commercial repellents, against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions. Mondal S, Mirdha BR, Mahapatra SC: The science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.). 10.1146/annurev.ento.51.051705.113646. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004, 46: 235-236. 2009, New York: Oxford University Press. Wright RH, Kellogg FE: Response of Aedes aegypti to moist convection currents.

The field of plant-based repellent evaluation and development had become far more rigorous in recent years and developments in methods of dispensing plant-based volatiles means that extension in the duration of repellency and consequent efficacy of plant-based repellents will be possible in future. 2005, 42: 306-311. One such compound is the amino acid, alliin. As with any supplement regimen, its best to consult with your health-care provider about the efficacy of the supplement for your health care needs. A2$[+WLoo`*7M41E@ f~\TkhI ymBqKZ?

This is the targeted search for medicinal plants through in-depth interviews with key informants knowledgeable in folk-lore and traditional medicine. 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2006.00645.x. These studies can be broken down into a series of categories: 1) standard ethnobotanical studies and evaluations of plants that are traditionally used to repel mosquitoes [17, 6770]; 2) standard dose response [33] laboratory evaluations of solvent extractions of plants without DEET positive controls [71]; 3) standard dose response [33] laboratory evaluations of solvent or extractions or essential oils of plants with DEET positive controls [72] coupled with GC-MS (coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) [73]; 4) laboratory evaluations using time to first bite method [74] comparing the plant repellents to DEET [75] and in addition several of those studies also analysed the constituents of the oil through GC-MS [76, 77]. 10.1038/nature08834. In addition, there is some evidence that heavy consumption of garlic through supplements or well-flavored foods may help ward off mosquitoes. 2 0 obj J Med Entomol. Goodyer L, Behrens RH: Short report: The safety and toxicity of insect repellents. Cloyd RA: Natural indeed: are natural insecticides safer better than conventional insecticides?. Indian J Malariol. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. Local production of insect repellent would remove the high cost of importation in developing countries. 10.1016/j.jep.2009.07.008. Allicin is a very unstable compound; once in the gastrointestinal tract, it is rapidly converted to other compounds that can be used by the body. White GB: The insect repellent value of Ocimum spp. Park BS, Choi WS, Kim JH, Kim KH, Lee SE: Monoterpenes from thyme (Thymus vulgaris) potential mosquito repellents. \Bz"0jW4+ndXR`a)N". 10.1007/BF02232510. 2009, 372: 105-111. J Vector Borne Dis. Book Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED):DEET, EPA738-R-98-010. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010, 464: 66-71. 1995, 5: 55-73. 2006, 22: 507-514. Rutledge LC, Gupta RK: Variation in the protection periods of repellents on individual human subjects: an analytical review. Singh N, Mishra AK, Saxena A: Use of neem cream as a mosquito repellent in tribal areas of central India. 2008, 24: 513-519. WHOPES: Guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2009.4. 2001, 26: 76-82. Ditzen M, Pellegrino M, Vosshall LB: Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent deet. Dremova VP, Markina VV, Kamennov NA: How evaporation and absorption affect the formulation of various insect repellents. Barasa SS, Ndiege IO, Lwande W, Hassanali A: Repellent activities of stereoisomers of p-menthane-3,8-diols against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). When garlic is eaten and its components are metabolized, compounds are released from the body through the skin and the breath. Curr Biol. Pyrethrins are highly effective insecticides, that are relatively harmless to mammals [111], although it must be emphasised that many other plant produce compounds that are highly toxic to mammals and / or irritating to the skin, and natural does not equate to safe. 1993, Ottawa: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Greenstock DL, Larrea Q: Garlic as an insecticide. It is thought that garlic may be an alternative mosquito repellent for humans as well. Logan JG, Stanczyk NM, Hassanali A, Kemei J, Santana AEG, Ribeiro KAL, Pickett JA, Mordue (Luntz) JA: Arm-in-cage testing of natural human-derived mosquito repellents. J Vector Ecol. Acta Trop. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. It should be noted that the essential oil of lemon eucalyptus does not have EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) registration for use as an insect repellent. It is also commonly stated that plant based repellents are better for the environment than synthetic molecules. Nuchuchua O, Sakulku U, Uawongyart N, Puttipipatkhachorn S, Soottitantawat A, Ruktanonchai U: In vitro characterization and mosquito (Aedes aegypti) repellent activity of essential-oils-loaded nanoemulsions. Malar J. While it has not been proven through clinical studies, it is thought that the sulfur compounds present on the skin and in the breath after eating garlic may help ward off those pesky mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. Appropriate technology in vector control. Science. Moghul painting illustrating a man burning neem leaves near a river where biting insects would be present ( Dr Sarah Moore). 10.1007/BF01259434. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. New Phytologist. Dermatitis. Many plant extracts and oils repel mosquitoes, with their effect lasting from several minutes to several hours (Table 1).

2004, 35: 325-333. Trigg JK: Evaluation of a eucalyptus-based repellent against Anopheles spp. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1996, Penguin, Owen T: Geoponika: Agricultural Pursuits. 1971, 13: 13-16. Int Pest Cont. J Med Entomol. Moore SJ, Darling ST, Sihuincha M, Padilla N, Devine GJ: A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru. Central African Journal of Medicine. 2010, 9: 299-10.1186/1475-2875-9-299. 2010, 17: 1708-8305. CMAJ. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Citronella and geraniol candles are widely sold as outdoor repellents, however field studies against mixed populations of nuisance mosquitoes show reductions in biting around 50%, although they do not provide significant protection against mosquito bites [3739]. Karunamoorthi M.Sc., M.Phil., DPHM., Ph.D., FRES (London), Spatial releasing properties and mosquito repellency of cellulose-based beads containing essential oils and vanillin, Olfactory learning and memory in the disease vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, Prospects for malaria control through manipulation of mosquito larval habitats and olfactory-mediated behavioural responses using plant-derived compounds. Plant-based repellents are still extensively used in this traditional way throughout rural communities in the tropics because for many of the poorest communities the only means of protection from mosquito bites that are available [13], and indeed for some of these communities [17], as in the Europe and North America [18] natural smelling repellents are preferred because plants are perceived as a safe and trusted means of mosquito bite prevention. 1999, 72: 39-52. Health Bulletin. Book Product Performance Test Guidelines. 2004, 41: 726-730. Kwon Y, Kim SH, Ronderos DS, Lee Y, Akitake B, Woodward OM, Guggino WB, Smith DP, Montell C: Drosophila TRPA1 channel is required to avoid the naturally occurring insect repellent citronellal. kairomones, water vapour and temperature [4749]; 2) by reducing the evaporation and absorption of repellent actives due to the presence of long-chained fatty molecules [50]; 3) by containing fatty acids are known to be repellent to mosquitoes at high concentrations [51]. 2008, 33: 305-312. Pest Manag Sci. 4 0 obj J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. Caraballo AJ: Mosquito repellent action of Neemos. However, there are relatively few studies that have been carried out to determine the efficacy of essential oils from citronella as arthropod repellents. 2006, 83: 553-558. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2002, 67: 191-195. 2010, 104: 653-658. 1943, 11: EPA: Registration Eligability Descision Document: Oil of Citronella http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/factsheets/3105fact.pdf. 12. It was discovered in the 1960s during mass screenings of plants used in Chinese traditional medicine. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. Okoth J: Tagetes minuta L. as a repellent and insecticide against adult mosquitoes. This article has been published as part of Malaria Journal Volume 10 Supplement 1, 2011: Natural products for the control of malaria. x\rF}W@a+Z[9l*S E$e@H0 ".? 2006, 22: 158-160.

10.1038/194402a0. 2,E0T\FHj(b8E6C'j :G{- O*to U2`'g]9RbJQJC% YKM",_AyJ/R*#)g@%\bf *$&cp+}@|2CL4 People also read lists articles that other readers of this article have read. Privacy New developments have also been seen in understanding the function of plant-based repellents in insects. Indian J Malariol. Covell G: Anti-mosquito measures with special reference to India. Ann Rev Entomol. Fradin MS: Mosquitoes and mosquito repellents: a clinician's guide. 1989, 3: 97-100. 2009, 25: 292-300. 1994, 84: 207-211. Only two studies considered safety [79] or adverse effects [80] and only one study considered randomization and blinding [52], and almost all repellent studies did not consider the number of human participants needed to minimize sampling error [81]. %

Plants have also been used for centuries in the form of crude fumigants where plants were burnt to drive away nuisance mosquitoes and later as oil formulations applied to the skin or clothes which was first recorded in writings by ancient Greek [14], Roman [15] and Indian scholars [16] (Figure 1). Seyoum A, Killeen GF, Kabiru EW, Knols BG, Hassanali A: Field efficacy of thermally expelled or live potted repellent plants against African malaria vectors in western Kenya. Seyoum A, Kabiru EW, Lwande W, Killeen GF, Hassanali A, Knols BG: Repellency of live potted plants against Anopheles gambiae from human baits in semi-field experimental huts. In contrast, plant-based repellents do not have this rigorously tested safety record, with most being deemed safe because they have simply been used for a long time [90]. Essential oils distilled from members of the Lamiaceae (mint family that includes most culinary herbs), Poaceae (aromatic grasses) and Pinaceae (pine and cedar family) are commonly used as insect repellents throughout the globe (Table 1). Phasomkusolsil S, Soonwera M: Insect repellent activity of madicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn. USEPA: Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED):DEET, EPA738-R-98-010. Encapsulated citronella oil nanoemulsion is prepared by high-pressure homogenization of 2.5% surfactant and 100% glycerol, to create stable droplets that increase the retention of the oil and slow down release. This repellency of plant material has been exploited for thousands of years by man, most simply by hanging bruised plants in houses, a practice that is still in wide use throughout the developing countries [13]. LC50 values for larvae at 24 and 48h were 267.37 and 145.8l/l air, and for adults, they were 127.90 and 90.8l/l air, respectively. 10.1016/S1369-5266(02)00251-0. %PDF-1.7 Parasite. However, these contrasting results may be due to differing methodologies, and the solvents used to carry the repellents. 2008, 24: 150-153. P@$E 0zm*b_sqM DrGDR?GT-}}AR./Wx!Dh1KT~u} Tyagi BK, Ramnath T, Shahi AK: Evaluation of repellency of Tagetes minuta (Family:Compositae) against the vector mosquitoes Anopeles stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.). Curr Opinion Plant Biology. Goodyer LI, Croft AM, Frances SP, Hill N, Moore SJ, Onyango SP, Debboun M: Expert review of the evidence base for arthropod bite avoidance. J Vector Borne Dis. Insect Repellents for Human Skin and Outdoor Premises. 10.2987/8756-971X(2008)24[154:AOEOCT]2.0.CO;2. 2009, City, [http://trinityava.com/wp-content//Neem-for-Outdoor-Protection-2009.07.pdf]. endobj

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. <> 10.1208/s12249-009-9323-1. The bottom line: Mosquito repellents containing DEET are still your best bet for avoiding mosquitoes but a little garlic breath may also be a good thing. In the past few years, a plant derived repellent, PMD has been proven to be suitably efficacious and safe to compete with DEET in the field of disease prevention, and repellents have been recognised by WHO as a useful disease prevention tool to complement insecticide-based means of vector control. Koren G, Matsui D, Bailey B: DEET-based insect repellents: safety implications for children and pregnant and lactating women. Part of Parasitology research. Trumble JT: Caveat emptor: safety considerations for natural products used in arthropod control. Bernier UR, Furman KD, Kline DL, Allan SA, Barnard DR: Comparison of contact and spatial repellency of catnip oil and N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) Against Mosquitoes. 2005, 42: 95-99. Curtis CF: Traditional use of repellents. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. The sulfurs contained within the garlic extract have been shown to be effective against a wide range of insects, including mosquitoes, and the lingering odor can deter mosquitoes from the area for weeks. This is lower than most other commercial repellents but higher concentrations can cause skin sensitivity. J Med Entomol. 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.12.029. (Labiatae): traditional anti-mosquito plants. 10.1111/j.1365-2915.1989.tb00481.x. Trop Biomed. Many commercial repellents contain a number of plant essential oils either for fragrance or as repellents including peppermint, lemongrass, geraniol, pine oil, pennyroyal, cedar oil, thyme oil and patchouli.

5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. Reifenrath WG, Hawkins GS, Kurtz MS: Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations. It is common practice to conduct ethnobotanical surveys using structured interviews, combined with the collection of plant voucher Specimens (Figure 2), to evaluate plant use by indigenous ethnic groups [19]. AAPS PharmSciTech. Experiments were carried out at 271C and 605% RH in darkness. Hao H, Wei J, Dai J, Du J: Host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to vapors of geraniol, citral, citronellal, eugenol, or anisaldehyde. 2003, 169: 209-212. Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyam Y, Komalamisra N, Krisadaphong P, Apiwathnasorn C: Laboratory and field trial of developing medicinal local Thai plant products against four species of mosquito vectors. 2008, 19: E12-15. Nature Chemical Biology. 2003, 10: 181-184. PubMed 1994, 31: 95-102. Agroforestry Systems in China. 2005, 19: 303-309. 10.1016/S0035-9203(02)90084-2. Before deciding to use garlic supplements, its important to consider the potential side effects as well as possible benefits. Skinner WA, Tong HC, Maibach HI, Skidmore DL: Human skin surface lipid fatty acids - mosquito repellents. Sharma VP, Ansari MA, Razdan RK: Mosquito repellent action of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil. Citronella-based repellents only protect from host-seeking mosquitoes for about two hours although formulation of the repellent is very important [31, 32].