Non-scientific commentary, reports, and news articles were excluded from the analysis. 2020; doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv/25678. However, there are exceptions, such as SARS and MERS, which are mainly spread though close contact with infected people via respiratory droplets from cough or sneezing.

Accessed 2 Feb 2020. WHO. 2020. http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/42.1293.r.20200130.1803.002.html. WHO. Around 75.9% of English language publications focus on epidemiology and causes, while 85.7% of Chinese papers focus on prevention and control (Table1). With regard to COVID-19, early patients were reported to have some link to the Huanan Seafood Market in Wuhan, China, suggesting that these early infections were due to animal-to-person transmission. CAS et al. We also analyzed the methodological characteristics of the publications in the final sample. On 28 January 2020, the National Health Commission issued protocols for rapid prevention and control measures in order to effectively contain the spread of the epidemic through a big isolation and big disinfection policy during the Chinese Spring Festival [47]. To date, no specific antiviral treatment has proven effective; hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care. 2017;68:38799. The research domains, dates of publication, journal language, authors affiliations, and methodological characteristics were included in the analysis. 2020. http://www.nhc.gov.cn/tigs/s7848/202001/808bbf75e5ce415aa19f74c78ddc653f.shtml. Notice on further prevention and control of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus infection in rural areas. Lai S, Bogoch II, Watts A, Khan K, Li Z, Tatem A. The World Health Organization has declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Lancet. Our study only focuses on the articles published either in English or in Chinese during the early outbreak period. 2020. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov). Notice on printing and distributing the technical guide for prevention and control of novel coronavirus infection in medical institutions (First Edition). National Health Commission of Peoples Republic of China. It became clear that the COVID-19 infection occurs through exposure to the virus, and both the immunosuppressed and normal population appear susceptible. Table 4 summarizes the findings on important indicators from these epidemiological studies. Viruses. We recommend that the scholarly community conduct further research to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both the short-term and long-term. Lancet. During this early period, published research primarily explored the epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus. Some studies have reported an age distribution of adult patients between 25 and 89years old. Backer JA, Klinkenberg D, Wallinga J. 2020. http://www.nhc.gov.cn/yzygj/s7659/202001/b91fdab7c304431eb082d67847d27e14.shtml. On 29 December 2019, the first four cases of an acute respiratory syndrome of unknown etiology were reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China among people linked to a local seafood market (wet market) [2]. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. 2020; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.30.927806. All the findings and statements in this review regarding the outbreak are based on published information as listed in the references. 2005;8:1932. Pneumonia diagnosis and treatment of 2019-nCoV infection from Chinese NHC and CDC 2020. Reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Research is underway to understand more about transmissibility, severity, and other features associated with COVID-19 [3]. Accessed 1 Feb 2020. 2020. http://wjw.wuhan.gov.cn/front/web/showDetail/2019123108989. statement and Wu JT, Leung K, Leung GM. N Engl J Med. Lancet. WMHC. Most of the publications were written using the English language (89.2%). Many domestic and wild animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats, may serve as hosts for coronaviruses [23]. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.23.916726. 2020. https://www.imperial.ac.uk/media/imperial-college/medicine/sph/ide/gida-fellowships/Imperial-2019-nCoV-transmissibility.pdf. In addition to these three routes, one study also indicated the digestive system as a potential transmission route for COVID-19 infection. The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article is included as an Additional file table. Accessed 31 Jan 2020. Research domains of published research articles. 2020. https://www.worldpop.org/resources/docs/china/WorldPop-coronavirus-spread-risk-analysis-v1-25Jan.pdf.

A scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework suggested by Arksey and OMalley [10]. Laboratory results also indicated that SARS-CoV-2 is similar to some of the beta () coronaviruses genera identified in bats [12, 18, 40], which is situated in a group of SARS/SARS-like CoV [12]. Then, researchers used the lung fluid, blood, and throat swab samples of 15 patients to conduct laboratory tests. Accessed 2 Feb 2020. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. 2020;92:4417. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. 2022 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. As of 31 January 2020, this epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. The extent of transmission of novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, 2020. After the articles were selected, data were extracted and recorded in an excel spreadsheet. The largest portion of the papers (n=25, 38.5%) are related to causes, followed by papers on epidemiology (n=19, 29.2%), while 18.5% examined prevention and control and 13.8%reported clinical manifestations and diagnosis. Infectious Diseases of Poverty Med J Peking Union Med Coll Hosp. Cases resulting in death were primarily middle-aged and elderly patients with pre-existing diseases (tumor surgery, cirrhosis, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and Parkinsons disease) [13]. Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Commissions Briefing on the Current Pneumonia Epidemic Situation in Our City. Preliminary risk analysis of 2019 novel coronavirus spread within and beyond China. This study was funded by China Medical Board (CMB-18-297). 3). Regarding patients infected with COVID-19, it has been recommended to apply appropriate symptomatic treatment and supportive care [3, 16]. Transmission dynamics of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Accessed 31 Jan, 2020. Virological.org. Based on the main research objectives, articles were classified into one of the following four research domains: epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, or prevention and control. Accessed 31 Jan 2020. Estimating the potential total number of novel Coronavirus cases in Wuhan City, China. Prevent guideline of 2019-nCoV. Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV).

2020. http://www.chinacdc.cn/yw_9324/202001/t20200127_211469.html. SPA and HZ designed the study, guided the methodology, and wrote the first draft; SM, WY, QW, SC, RY were responsible for searching the articles; WY, SPA, HZ were responsible for database selection, search strategy, article screening against inclusion criteria, and charting the data; QW, SM, SPA, and HZ were responsible for analysis; SPA, HZ, SS, YM, SR and HR critically reviewed, discussed, and modified the manuscript. Confirmed cases were reported in the following 19 countries outside of China: Australia (9), Canada (3), Cambodia (1), France (6), Finland (1), Germany (5), India (1), Italy (2), Japan (14), Nepal (1), Malaysia (8), the Philippines (1), the Republic of Korea (11), Singapore (13), Sri Lanka (1), Thailand (14), the United States of America (6), United Arab Emirates (4) and Vietnam (5) (Fig. Roujian L, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. J Medl Virol. In addition, some white papers published online by the National Health Commission of the Peoples Republic of China, Chinese Center for Disease Prevention and Control, and the WHO were included in the analysis. Accessed 31 Jan 2020. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. The latest guidelines from Chinese health authorities stated an average incubation duration of 7days, ranging from 2 to 14days [23]. As shown in Fig. Novel Coronavirus-Japan (ex-China). Zhang H, Kang Z, Gong H, Xu D, Wang J, Li Z, et al. Cookies policy. Liu T, Hu J, Kang M, Lin L, Zhong H, Xiao J, et al. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group. Adhikari, S., Meng, S., Wu, YJ. Chen Y, Liu Q, Guo D. Coronaviruses: genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. On 22 January 2020, the National Health Commission published national guidelines for the prevention and control of COVID-19 for medical institutes to prevent nosocomial infection [46].

Riou J, Althaus CL. Concerning psychological health, some suggested psychological intervention for confirmed cases, suspected cases, and medical staff [18, 54]. Most of the publications (n=58, 89.2%) are in English and few (n=7, 10.8%) are in Chinese. Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content: Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Novel 2019 Coronavirus Genome 2020. http://virological.org/t/novel-2019-coronavirus-genome/319. China bioRxiv. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. By using this website, you agree to our

WHO. The key messages of the guideline include causes, how to choose and wear face masks, proper hand washing habits, preventive measures at different locations (e.g., at home, on public transportation, and in public space), disinfection methods, and medical observation at home [57]. Cite this article. Studies also reported that COVID-19S-protein supported strong interaction with human ACE2 molecules despite the dissimilarity of its sequence with that of SARS-CoV [12, 42]. 2020;25(4). 2012;367:181420. Accessed 1 Feb 2020. Although it is still too early to predict susceptible populations, early patterns have shown a trend similar to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses. bioRxiv. Accessed 1 Feb 2020. WHO. Sci Chin Life Sci. Infection preventive and control (IPC) measures that may reduce the risk of exposure include the following: use of face masks; covering coughs and sneezes with tissues that are then safely disposed of (or, if no tissues are available, use a flexed elbow to cover the cough or sneeze); regular hand washing with soap or disinfection with hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol (if soap and water are not available); avoidance of contact with infected people and maintaining an appropriate distance as much as possible; and refraining from touching eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands [3]. Accessed 2 Feb 2020. Springer Nature. They detected 33 samples containing SARS-CoV-2 and indicated that it originated from wild animals sold in the market [39]. Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020. Xu M, Zhang Y. Most adult patients were between 35 and 55years old [14], and there were fewer identified cases among children and infants [14, 18]. National Health Commission of Peoples Republic of China. And the current reference name for the virus is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Accessed 23 Feb 2020. COVID-19 has now been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO [9]. Prevention and control strategies and methods are reported at three levels: national level, case-related population level, and general population level. 2020. https://www.imperial.ac.uk/media/imperial-college/medicine/sph/ide/gida-fellowships/2019-nCoV-outbreak-report-17-01-2020.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2020. WHO. 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Accessed 31 Jan 2020. Soon, a secondary source of infection was found to be human-to-human transmission via close contact. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. 2020; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.23.20018549. The COVID-19 has been found to have higher levels of transmissibility and pandemic risk than the SARS-CoV, as the effective reproductive number (R) of COVID-19 (2.9) is estimated to be higher than the reported effective reproduction number (R) of SARS (1.77) at this early stage [15]. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. In addition to articles published in research journals, the China CDC published a guideline to raise awareness of the prevention and control of COVID-19 among the general population. The search terms were nCoV, 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, novel coronavirus, Pneumonia, (Chinese), (Chinese), and (Chinese). Accessed 1 Feb 2020. Accessed 1 Feb 2020. A series of measures have been suggested to reduce nosocomial infection, including knowledge training for prevention and control, isolation, disinfection, classified protections at different degrees in infection areas, and protection of confirmed cases [18, 50, 53]. Patients with mild symptoms were reported to recover after 1 week while severe cases were reported to experience progressive respiratory failure due to alveolar damage from the virus, which may lead to death [13]. Epidemiology includes studies on the epidemic distribution (when, where, who); causes includes studies on virology, pathogenesis, and transmission patterns; clinical manifestation and diagnosis includes studies on the clinical features (signs and symptoms) and diagnosis; and prevention and control includes studies on prevention, control, and treatment measures. Quick guide to the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia for novel coronavirus infections (third edition).