160 0 obj 119 0 obj In an annuity contract found in the Ptolemaic "Family Archive from Siut" (a town in Middle Egypt), the man addresses the woman. 106 0 obj 124 0 obj 102 0 obj 65 0 obj 90 0 obj endobj 34 0 obj 153 0 obj endobj endobj 72 0 obj endobj Either party could divorce a spouse on any grounds or, basically, without grounds, without any interest or record on the part of the state. endobj 52 0 obj This is in sharp contrast with other ancient "marriage documents," whether these documents were purely economic or also embedded social concerns. The best-known example of a local court is the one at Deir el-Medina, the New Kingdom village on the west bank of the Nile at modern Luxor, ancient Thebes, inhabited by the workmen who carved and decorated the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings. endobj << /Contents 371 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 26 0 R /Resources 372 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> Of the 2,110 parcels of land for which the name of the owner is preserved, women are listed as owners of 228, just over 10 percent; the land frequently is described as being worked by their children. << /Contents 325 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 23 0 R /Resources 326 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> @_k8xwl];57GtP << /Contents 285 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 21 0 R /Resources 286 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> 45 0 obj But most women did not hold jobs outside the home and consequently were usually referred to by more generic titles such as "mistress of the house" or "citizeness." << /Contents 289 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 22 0 R /Resources 290 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> But it seems clear that, until the husband has returned his wife's dowry and paid her the fine, or until she has accepted it, the husband remained liable for supporting her, even if they were no longer living together. endobj << /Contents 319 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 23 0 R /Resources 320 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> << /Contents 239 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 19 0 R /Resources 240 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj 61 0 obj

<< /Contents 321 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 23 0 R /Resources 322 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> << /Contents 255 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 20 0 R /Resources 256 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> << /Contents 383 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 26 0 R /Resources 384 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj << /Count 19 /First 7 0 R /Last 8 0 R /Type /Outlines >> We hope this collection will provide you with information about the interesting history of law. 164 0 obj 55 0 obj 144 0 obj H1@U4zP,Fp,N}uPG Gx+a|B^ 3(;FapT W/y,e5rX%ed5&>,!-ArNaJ'sy 0 Ym7 endobj

endstream endobj << /Count 10 /Kids [ 144 0 R 145 0 R 146 0 R 147 0 R 148 0 R 149 0 R 150 0 R 151 0 R 152 0 R 153 0 R ] /Parent 11 0 R /Type /Pages >> Since even remarriage after the death of a first wife could lead to wrangling over property and inheritance rights, a bitter divorce and remarriage could lead to major legal contests. endobj It should be noted that the Egyptians not only had a concept of private property, they also developed a concept of "joint property," property acquired by a married couple during their marriage. endobj

The judges then had the complainant produce witnesses (three men and three women) who would attest that she had used stolen property to purchase the girl. << /Contents 337 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 24 0 R /Resources 338 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj endobj 70 0 obj

<< /Contents 339 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 24 0 R /Resources 340 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj

endobj This resulted not from formal laws or restrictions but simply, presumably, from the fact that this was the group of people with whom one had the most contact and with whom one was most comfortable. These documents were not designed to legitimize the marriage--they were not a prerequisite for marriage nor did they have to be contracted at the time of the union since some refer to children who are already born to the couple. << /Contents 193 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 17 0 R /Resources 194 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> 121 0 obj endobj 19 0 obj endobj 161 0 obj The so-called "marriage contracts" concern themselves only with economic matters--the annual responsibility of the husband to feed and clothe the wife (and their children) and the right of their children to inherit his wealth--and are better called annuity contracts. endobj endobj 142 0 obj << /Contents 377 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 26 0 R /Resources 378 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >>

Thus, normally a married woman was supported by her husband for as long as they remained married and his property was entailed for their children. Although most marriages may have been arranged at the desire of the husband and parents of the bride, there is also a repeated literary image of a girl persuading her father to let her marry the man whom she wishes, rather than the father's choice. << /Contents 273 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 21 0 R /Resources 274 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> 17 0 obj 85 0 obj endstream 168 0 obj 87 0 obj 135 0 obj 66 0 obj 60 0 obj 129 0 obj endobj 73 0 obj

endobj 162 0 obj For instance, in the literary text entitled "The Instructions of the (Vizier) Ptahhotep," preserved in Middle Kingdom and later copies, a man's wife is seen basically as a dependent, of whom it behooves him to take good, and loving, care: << /Contents 329 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 24 0 R /Resources 330 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> Some (ex-)husbands, then as now, tried to avoid supporting their (ex-)wives, and we have several references to a woman's biological family stepping in to support or assist her when her husband can't or won't. 37 0 obj endobj Technical As such, they were extremely advantageous to the wife and one may assume that the woman and her family exerted as much pressure as they could to ensure that the husband made such a contract. 50 0 obj endobj << /Count 10 /Kids [ 124 0 R 125 0 R 126 0 R 127 0 R 128 0 R 129 0 R 130 0 R 131 0 R 132 0 R 133 0 R ] /Parent 10 0 R /Type /Pages >> endobj Some Egyptian evidence could suggest that this was or had been true in Egypt, as well. << /Contents 327 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 24 0 R /Resources 328 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> << /Contents 227 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 19 0 R /Resources 228 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> 36 0 obj << /Contents 299 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 22 0 R /Resources 300 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> 58 0 obj << /Contents 361 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 25 0 R /Resources 362 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> << /Contents 219 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 18 0 R /Resources 220 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj

155 0 obj ']/2ZD^H)+,^"}N_agw#NU;n/ ]D_\Zv\(U;%w#]-M@n"R8[cUl)Uwd/ P5UA^6dkHkPw&m?'v^HG2t5wcfb ,`YyTPz7sa7x*+;buGMdHdms^eYdFDCM~ << /D [ 32 0 R /FitH 846 ] /S /GoTo >> 24 0 obj endobj endobj However these women originally acquired this land, what is significant is that they hold title to the land and bear responsibility for assessments due. << /Contents 243 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 19 0 R /Resources 244 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> But the gift which a man might give to his future father-in-law has also been analyzed as serving to break the bonds of the woman with her biological family, so that the new couple could establish their own family as the center of their life and loyalty. endobj They were not intended to establish the social/personal rights and responsibilities of either party toward the other, as did both the Greek and Aramaic Jewish marriage contracts preserved from first millennium Egypt. endobj << /Contents 177 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 16 0 R /Resources 178 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> << /Contents 187 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 17 0 R /Resources 188 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> Keep her from power, restrain her--her eye is her storm when she gazes. The earliest contracts of which we have record are imyt pr documents, literally "that which is in the house." This reference to contending with one's wife in court clearly indicates that women had legal rights and were willing to fight for them. endobj 116 0 obj }r7rkWv-m)(.Hq6[,p$h&YdG?,.Foh4^yja8{9?s+6DPVe;pCTY(jRX/p\[Pv _`!zB ,n!2T,$x'8t?nPOkCF+ C"d6;q{/9rBW %P\+hyt gc(PaW!DbKZp} V3qT*Xy/;kWL23O\':EE0Vva8-uV[jI4x4 << /Contents 171 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 16 0 R /Resources 172 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> That women very rarely did serve on juries or as witnesses to legal documents is a result of social factors, not legal ones. endobj << /Contents 195 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 17 0 R /Resources 196 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> Htr0-7tAO]f << /Contents 409 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 28 0 R /Resources 410 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> In these societies, a system of legal rules have been put into place. endobj endobj endobj

In society, to have peace and order, you need to have a set of rules and regulations that all citizens need to follow. They were used to transfer property to someone other than the person(s) who would inherit the property if the owner died intestate (i.e., without a will). << /Contents 203 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 17 0 R /Resources 204 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> papyrus egyptian ships ancient boat mesopotamia boats egypt inventions ship mesopotamian sail 2009 reed aksumite constructed were use papirus questions Thus, "law" is the king's word (wd-nswt). r kum endobj However, not all people follow the set laws, and when they dont the legal system that has been set in place will tell what punishment will be given to the law breakers. M0bD&fO$)Mes~m. << /Contents 233 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 19 0 R /Resources 234 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj endobj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 1982 >> << /Contents 357 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 25 0 R /Resources 358 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> << /A 33 0 R /Next 8 0 R /Parent 4 0 R /Prev 34 0 R /Title (APPENDIX D) >> endobj << /Contents 401 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 27 0 R /Resources 402 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> << /Contents 365 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 25 0 R /Resources 366 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj << /Contents 331 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 24 0 R /Resources 332 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >>



endobj

endobj endobj 62 0 obj

140 0 obj << /Contents 375 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 26 0 R /Resources 376 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> 32 0 obj endstream %Q After divorce, both were free to remarry. endobj Vi 8|6q.q_ &U(P(J(d*_GuT(rmw8|{X{Fp>R!$3o=93,\iYgDIn-Z>HJ`O)ybE0{_Cp{JW2E:`E6q_]_IR4.>{mZdmJrEVFpf2\`6W|ifvh nae )Yafa|n'0Cl6ZM`?6{#kJ{Kwa:s&cOv.UypY%" RDss&/Inl{OjawTUbk6zlha+pkWSPKl$UXG|#b$g 40 0 obj << /Contents 213 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 18 0 R /Resources 214 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> 159 0 obj 41 0 obj endobj endobj << /Contents 353 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 25 0 R /Resources 354 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj 69 0 obj 5 0 obj Contracts were written copies of oral agreements in which Party A spoke to Party B in the presence of witnesses and a (professional) scribe who copied down (and put into "legalese") the words of Party A. Egyptian women were able to acquire, to own, and to dispose of property (both real and personal) in their own name.

Thus, in case of divorce, the husband had to repay the value, not return the specific items. endobj << /Contents 277 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 21 0 R /Resources 278 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> To resolve potential disputes before they might arise, the somewhat practical or pragmatic expediency was chosen of making it incumbent on the father to secure the permission of his older children, who stood to lose part of their inheritance. 172 0 obj q|'8r33=F4b~sZnq\OibqH8 ro:vZeO7it'$4s}! 130 0 obj << /Contents 183 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 16 0 R /Resources 184 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> Publications include the 3rd edition (online) of her teaching grammar of Demotic, Thus Wrote 'Onchsheshonqy, as well as numerous articles and books. endobj +BE=c*}>W19( jAE_W7V']rJ/{2C endobj But next comes a jarring statement, endobj endobj << /Nums [ 0 9 0 R ] >> 128 0 obj 11 0 obj Cc]||M])IrnF4-O5NBmTx]~w,]}@ Divorce and remarriage were common in Egypt at all periods and contention between siblings and half-siblings, frequent. jtk:>gh$&Es55 << /Contents 267 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 21 0 R /Resources 268 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> << /Contents 207 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 18 0 R /Resources 208 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> 71 0 obj 154 0 obj Copyright 2022 by The San Diego DUI Specialists. 91 0 obj endobj endobj Although only Party A spoke, Party B had the right to accept or refuse the contract, thus making these agreements bilateral and binding on both parties. 156 0 obj endobj endobj << /Contents 359 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 25 0 R /Resources 360 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj They could enter into contracts in their own name; they could initiate civil court cases and could, likewise, be sued; they could serve as witnesses in court cases; they could serve on juries; and they could witness legal documents. endobj ).f endobj 26 0 obj 14 0 obj A spouse divorced for fault (including adultery) forfeited his or her share of the couple's joint property. endobj << /Contents 179 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 16 0 R /Resources 180 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj << /Contents 291 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 22 0 R /Resources 292 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >>

But in the legal arena both women and men could act on their own and were responsible for their own actions. << /Count 10 /Kids [ 134 0 R 135 0 R 136 0 R 137 0 R 138 0 R 139 0 R 140 0 R 141 0 R 142 0 R 143 0 R ] /Parent 11 0 R /Type /Pages >> << /Contents 355 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 25 0 R /Resources 356 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >>

The preserved portion of the first Late Period story of Setne Khaemwast tells how Ahure and Na-nefer-ka-Ptah fell in love and wanted to marry. endobj 10 0 obj 151 0 obj << /A 167 0 R /Next 15 0 R /Parent 4 0 R /Prev 168 0 R /Title (APPENDIX C) >> endobj 117 0 obj 138 0 obj Near 1760 BC King Hammurabi instituted the Code of Hammurabi, which instituted penalties for certain unacceptable behaviors. This court was composed of local people, usually the relatively important local citizens including the scribes and crew chiefs, but also some simple workmen and, even more rarely, women. 148 0 obj << /Contents 253 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 20 0 R /Resources 254 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> Although women sometimes helped their husbands with their jobs (whether the equivalent of the modern "mom and pop store" or the wife filling in for her husband when the husband was "on the road") and although women had ways of acquiring some wealth through their own initiative (especially through textile production), they needed some assurance that the father of their children would provide for their (hers and their children's) material future. 15 0 obj << /Count 10 /Kids [ 29 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R 38 0 R 39 0 R 40 0 R 41 0 R 42 0 R 43 0 R ] /Parent 10 0 R /Type /Pages >> << /Contents 263 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 20 0 R /Resources 264 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> The end of the papyrus recording the court case is lost, but it is clear that the woman Iry-nefret acted on her own in purchasing the servant-girl and was held solely liable for her actions while the testimony of both women and men was held by the judges to be equally admissible. << /Contents 367 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 26 0 R /Resources 368 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj << /Metadata 3 0 R /Outlines 4 0 R /PageLabels 5 0 R /Pages 6 0 R /Type /Catalog >> endobj 49 0 obj 8 0 obj << /Contents 251 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 20 0 R /Resources 252 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> 115 0 obj 166 0 obj

<< /Contents 205 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 17 0 R /Resources 206 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> These contracts frequently have been identified as "wills," but a better translation is "(land) transfer document." << /Count 8 /Kids [ 154 0 R 155 0 R 156 0 R 157 0 R 158 0 R 32 0 R 159 0 R 160 0 R ] /Parent 11 0 R /Type /Pages >> endobj The Oriental Institute(www-oi.uchicago.edu/). endobj 131 0 obj endobj 171 0 obj 51 0 obj Thus, everybody's wants or needs were satisfied by getting everyone to agree to what at least some people wanted. Note that although the wife "owned" the property, the husband had use of it. 21 0 obj endobj endobj << /Count 100 /Kids [ 16 0 R 17 0 R 18 0 R 19 0 R 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R 23 0 R 24 0 R 25 0 R ] /Parent 6 0 R /Type /Pages >> stream endobj 53 0 obj << /A 163 0 R /Next 164 0 R /Parent 4 0 R /Prev 13 0 R /Title (SUMMARY) >> 4 0 obj HW6+1#zb)HHEtA,4#>$Y,S{gedcf,gKNY>e2qDLbAYL6ELx,ZIe$rN^^ M")Y,2qhRy[VF",YkS=>$T/Aob)%@_Yz%+5jUVj7=F3J}!wxTd9^VpyO1SL@qiOFrX|:W[z? endobj 86 0 obj endobj Much of the New Kingdom evidence for the economic role of women comes from documents reflecting their dealings with both men and women. {)I-h+FmZNZg]Srwk}~-]$n!R4\ny>^ #M| e{JhdbHM~p;8w>x9.:Q25Rt`l5[kjn!Ovg5Chld-Mn\UQ H^N hm.za*KcZ602J(RlUvaT`/. << /S /D >> << /Contents 347 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 25 0 R /Resources 348 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> endobj endobj 54 0 obj 7 0 obj endobj endobj and Restrictions. Because Egyptian women were full participants in the legal system, not chattel and not dependent on a man to handle their legal concerns for them, such contracts were made by the husband directly with the wife, not her father or any other man on her behalf. That it is the husband who has use of joint property reflects the social fact that men normally participated in the public sphere, whereas women did not. << /Contents 415 0 R /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Parent 28 0 R /Resources 416 0 R /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >>

In ancient Egypt all law was given from above; there was no "legislature" which would draft "legislation." What is the Difference Between Common Law and Civil Law?