They helped us create a world of our own, a world different from the dull and senseless ideological liturgy that increasingly reminded me of Stalinism". [2] In essence "cultural diplomacy reveals the soul of a nation", which in turn creates influence. Mark Leonard, "Diplomacy by Other Means," Foreign Policy 132 (September/October 2002): 51. Nicholas J. Cull, "Public Diplomacy: Taxonomies and Histories," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 616 (March 2008): 36. Place branding is "the totality of the thoughts, feelings, associations and expectations that come to mind when a prospect or consumer is exposed to an entity's name, logo, products, services, events, or any design or symbol representing them." This page was last edited on 19 July 2022, at 20:37. [citation needed], This Image and reputation has become an essential part of a "state's strategic equity". [56] The Beatles symbolized the Western culture in a way that introduced new ideas that many believe assisted in the collapse of communism. Michael J. Waller (Washington, DC: Institute of World Politics Press, 2009), 82-87. The ambassador to Moscow, Llewellyn Thompson, commented that "the exhibition would be 'worth more to us than five new battleships. The system was built on fear and lies, and in this way, the Beatles put an end to the fear, and exposed the lies. "Cultural Diplomacy, Political Influence, and Integrated Strategy," in Strategic Influence: Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda, and Political Warfare, ed. This, in turn, aids in the interpretation of intelligence, enhances a nation's prestige and aids in garnering support for policies abroad. Scott-Smith, Giles, and Hans Krabbendam, eds. Concert performances by this elite group of students from the Eastman School of Music were received to critical acclaim by enthusiastic audiences in thirty four cities in sixteen countries throughout Europe, the Middle East and Russia. The authorities, our teachers, even our parents, became idiots to us. : Public Diplomacy and Strategic Influence in the Age of Terror (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006), 52. Joseph S. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (Cambridge: Perseus Books, 2004), 18. (Moscow, Russia: Moscow State University of Culture and Arts, 2018, 2), 26-33. [31] These cultural displays can carry important messages regarding individualism, consumer choices and other values. Mary N. Maack, "Books and Libraries as Instruments of Cultural Diplomacy in Francophone Africa during the Cold War," Libraries & Culture 36, no. "[61] Pavel Palazchenko, Mikhail Gorbachev's conference interpreter, stated that the Beatles' music was a "source of musical relief. There was a typical American kitchen set up inside in which spectators could watch a Bird's Eye frozen meal be prepared. Editors - Bronfman, Alejandra & Wood, Andrew Grant. in, Paschalidis, G., "Exporting national culture: histories of cultural institutes abroad". It also shows how a private citizen can unintentionally become a cultural ambassador of sorts. More , (London; August 25th - 29th, 2022) [32] These observations were not intended to be political messages when Hollywood created the films, but they none-the-less carried a message. "Polish cultural diplomacy and historical memory: the case of the Museum of the Second World War in Gdask.". [56] He considered jazz as corrupt and capitalistic due to the fact that it grew out of the United States during a time of political unrest. The idea is that exchanges will create a network of influential people abroad that will tie them to their host country and will appreciate their host country more due to their time spent there. Cultural diplomacy is a type of public diplomacy and soft power that includes the "exchange of ideas, information, art, language and other aspects of culture among nations and their peoples in order to foster mutual understanding". [57], Jazz originally surfaced in the Soviet Union during the 1920s and 1930s, but quickly faded. Cull, The Cold War and the United States Information Agency: American Propaganda and Public Diplomacy, 1945-1989 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 162-167. Giles Scott-Smith, "Mapping the Undefinable: Some Thoughts on the Relevance of Exchange Programs within International Relations Theory," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 16 (March 2008): 174. ", Clarke, D., "Theorising the role of cultural products in cultural diplomacy from a cultural studies perspective". Carnes Lord, Losing Hearts and Minds? [56] As many as thirty million listeners worldwide, including millions in the Soviet Union, listened to the forty-five minutes of pop music and forty-five minutes of jazz with a newscast preceding each. This comes from knowledge of the other's culture. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2012 Pg. [55], Jazz played a critical role during the Cold War in establishing political ties. The display sought to show the human side of the tragedy, and not just the destruction of buildings. King, and Dizzy Gillespie all made trips to Africa that fostered connections with the African diaspora. 2 (Spring 1999): 178. "Cultural Diplomacy in India: Dispersal, Heritage Representation, Contestation, and Development. When anyone said anything against them, we knew just what that person was worth. The most popular items were the Bible and a Sears catalogue. It can also be used to counter hostile propaganda and the collection of open-source intelligence. Goff, Patricia M. "Cultural diplomacy." It arises from a country's culture, political ideals and policies. The political scientist Prof. Joseph S. Nye has made the renowned distinction between the two, describing 'soft power' as: More , (Berlin; October 24th - 29th, 2022) ", Brown, John. The government does not usually produce the books, music, films, TV programs, consumer products, etc. The display included 27 images, detailing the September 11 attacks by Joel Meyerowitz that circulated, with the backing of embassies and consulates, to 60 nations. (University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2004), 205-209. All rights reserved | Sitemap | Contact | Imprint | Privacy Policy, For the International Symposium on Cultural Diplomacy 2009, Inter Parliamentary Alliance for Human Rights. [13] Cultural exchange programs work as a medium to relay a favourable impression of the foreign country in order to gain outsiders' understanding and approval in their cultural practices and naturalize their social norms among other cultures. The Soviets tried to limit the audience by only giving tickets to party members and setting up their own rival exhibition. [3] In this way, cultural diplomacy and public diplomacy are intimately linked. [26], A similar effort was carried out by the United States Department of State in February 2002 entitled Images from Ground Zero. The tools can be utilized by working through NGOs, diasporas and political parties abroad, which may help with the challenge of relevance and understanding. United States, Department of State, Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy, Diplomacy Report of the Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy, 3, 4, 9. [66], Cultural diplomacy presents a number of unique challenges to any government attempting to carry out cultural diplomacy programs. 1, (Spring 2013), 117-118. [57] With their interracial group, the jazz band was able to communicate across social and language barriers. Nicholas J. Cull, "Public Diplomacy: Taxonomies and Histories," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 616 (March 2008): 39-40. As the move towards more socially responsible business practices gains momentum, the ability to understand and embrace the different values and needs of diverse cultures and societies becomes ever more important. Cultural diplomacy attempts to manage the international environment by utilizing these sources and achievements and making them known abroad. [citation needed], The usefulness of exchanges is based on two assumptions- some form of political intent lies behind the exchange and the result will have some sort of political effect. There are many reasons why corporations need to be aware of the differences between cultures in their strategic decision-making process and adopt cultural diplomacy models into their agenda: ICD - Institute for Cultural Diplomacy. "Cultural Diplomacy may best be described as a course of actions, which are based on and utilize the exchange of ideas, values, traditions and other aspects of culture or identity, whether to strengthen relationships, enhance socio-cultural cooperation, promote national interests and beyond; Cultural diplomacy can be practiced by either the public sector, private sector or civil society.". [31] For example, Soviet audiences watching American films learned that Americans owned their own cars, did not have to stand in long lines to purchase food, and did not live in communal apartments. "Cultural Diplomacy, Political Influence, and Integrated Strategy," in Strategic Influence: Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda, and Political Warfare, ed. Michael J. Waller (Washington, DC: Institute of World Politics Press, 2009), 89. "Cultural Diplomacy, Political Influence, and Integrated Strategy," in Strategic Influence: Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda, and Political Warfare, ed. All of these factors affect a nation's security, thus, cultural diplomacy has an effect on, and a role to play, in regards to national security. 2 (March 2003): 315-323. "Cultural Diplomacy, Political Influence, and Integrated Strategy," in Strategic Influence: Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda, and Political Warfare, ed. Cultural diplomacy is also a component of public diplomacy. [23], Overall, cultural diplomacy has the potential to demonstrate national power, create an environment conducive to support, and assist in the collection and interpretation of information. "The ability to persuade through culture, values and ideas, as opposed to 'hard power', which conquers or coerces through military might". [43][44] Performances of classical music by the orchestra continued throughout Europe until 1962. [29] Exchanges generally take place at a young age, giving the host country the opportunity to create an attachment and gain influence at a young impressionable age. "[8] It is important to note that, while cultural diplomacy is, as indicated above, a government activity, the private sector has a very real role to play because the government does not create culture, therefore, it can only attempt to make a culture known and define the impact this organic growth will have on national policies. Joseph S. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (Cambridge: Perseus Books, 2004), 56. This article claimed that musicians, such as Armstrong, created a universal language to communicate. [57], From 1955 to 1996, jazz producer Willis Conover hosted a music program called "Music USA," for the Voice of America to assist in the emergence of jazz musicians as U.S. This gave Russians the ability to speak to real Americans and ask difficult questions. Producer Willis Conover explained jazz as an embodiment of an anti-ideology or an alternative way of living by introducing a new style of music with a loose structure and improvisation.

Carnes Lord, Losing Hearts and Minds? So now we think it's only natural to go to court a few times in your life. [7], An example of exchanges is the United States' Fulbright Program. "Cultural Diplomacy in Europe." [10] This exchange is then intended to foster a mutual understanding and thereby win influence within the target nation. "[20] This is an example of a cultural export Hollywood movies possibly having a subtle effect on the legal system in China, which could ultimately benefit the United States or any other nation which wishes to see a more democratic China. Explorers, travelers, traders, teachers and artists can be all considered living examples of informal ambassadors or early cultural diplomats. Place branding is required to make a country's image acceptable for investment, tourism, political power, etc. "[28] Exhibitions like this were used to display the best a culture had to offer and basically show off in a way that appeared non threatening and even friendly.

Fosler-Lussier, Danielle, "Jazz Diplomacy: Promoting America in Cold War Era by Lisa E. Davenport (review)," American Music 31, no. [3] Though often overlooked, cultural diplomacy can and does play an important role in achieving national security efforts. [57], Duke Ellington, B.B. More , (Munich; November 18th - 21st, 2022) Cultural diplomacy in practice (or applied cultural diplomacy) is the application and implementation of the theory of cultural diplomacy, including all models that have been practiced throughout history by individual, community, state or institutional actors. [14], Generally, cultural diplomacy is more focused on the longer term and less on specific policy matters. Michael J. Waller (Washington, DC: Institute of World Politics Press, 2009), 78-79. [14], First and foremost, cultural diplomacy is a demonstration of national power because it demonstrates to foreign audiences every aspect of culture, including wealth, scientific and technological advances, competitiveness in everything from sports and industry to military power, and a nation's overall confidence. "Cultural Diplomacy, Political Influence, and Integrated Strategy," in Strategic Influence: Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda, and Political Warfare, ed. The guides for the exhibition were American graduate students, including African Americans and women, who spoke Russian. [56], In this way the music of The Beatles struck a political chord in the Soviet Union, even when the songs were not meant to be political. In 1952 the U.S. [67] To be cultural relevant in the age of globalization, a government must exercise control over the flows of information and communication technologies, including trade. [15] It allows the government to create a "foundation of trust" and a mutual understanding that is neutral and built on people-to-people contact.

The display originally showed in the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, but then USIA helped the display to be seen in 91 locations in 39 countries. Michael J. Waller (Washington, DC: Institute of World Politics Press, 2009), 77. The exhibition was opened by Vice President Richard Nixon and attended by Walt Disney, Buckminster Fuller, William Randolph Hearst, and senior executives from Pepsi, Kodak and Macy's. 1 (Winter 2001): 59. as a silent weapon in gaining control over another nation with the use of non-violent methods to perpetrate a relationship of mutual understanding and support among the countries involved. [62] Leslie Woodland, a documentary film maker, commented regarding what the Russian people were told about the West "Once people heard the Beatles' wonderful music, it just didn't fit. The display was intended to shape and maintain the public memory of the attack and its aftermath. Companies seeking to expand abroad, will encounter problems unless they conduct research into, and act according to the cultural differences with the host country. [17][18] The perception of power obviously has important implications for a nation's ability to ensure its security. No longer relegated to the periphery of the international relations discipline, cultural diplomacy today is a vibrant and innovative academic field of research and has successfully established itself as a stand-alone theory and practice. [21] The struggle to affect important international developments is increasingly about winning the information struggle to define the interpretation of states' actions. [30], Popular entertainment is a statement about the society which it is portraying. An IBM RAMAC computer was programmed to answer 3,500 questions about America in Russian. In the early 1940s, Nelson Rockefeller at the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs collaborated with Edmund A. Chester of the CBS radio broadcasting network in order to showcase leading musicians from both North and South America for audiences on both continents. Seventh Army enlisted the expertise of the young conductor Samuel Adler to establish the Seventh Army Symphony Orchestra in Stuttgart, Germany in order to demonstrate the shared cultural heritage of America and Europe. United States, Department of State, Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy, Diplomacy Report of the Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy, 3. "Film as cultural diplomacy: South Koreas nation branding through Parasite (2019)." Musical artists such as Alfredo Antonini, Terig Tucci, John Serry Sr., Miguel Sandoval, Juan Arvizu, Elsa Miranda, Eva Garza and Nestor Mesta Chayres participated in this truly international effort to foster peace throughout the Americas through shared musical performances (See Viva Amrica). "[63] During Paul McCartney's first trip to Russia in May 2003, nearly half a million fans greeted him. [22] Cultural diplomacy can create an environment in which a nation is received as basically good, which in turn can help frame its actions in a positive light. This contact went both ways. One Russian critic reported, "The only person in Red Square who wasn't moved was Lenin". These models include for example diverse cultural exchange programs, international delegations (e.g., American jazz ambassadors) or sports competitions. More , ICD House of Arts & Culture; April 30th, 2022, (Berlin; July 27th - 31st, 2022) This is where the role of Soft Power as a form of cultural diplomacy becomes significant. [25] These tools are generally not created by a government, but produced by the culture and then the government facilitates their expression abroad to a foreign audience, with the purpose of gaining influence. The most popular question was "what is the meaning of the American Dream?" [citation needed], Richard T. Arndt, a former State Department cultural diplomacy practitioner, said "Cultural relations grow naturally and organically, without government intervention the transactions of trade and tourism, student flows, communications, book circulation, migration, media access, inter-marriage millions of daily cross-cultural encounters. Exchanges - scientific, artistic, educational etc. This can be used to better understand a foreign nation's intentions and capabilities. He reported to President Eisenhower that he and his jazz band were effective against Red propaganda. This is the way in which ideas and perceptions can ultimately affect the ability of a nation to achieve its national security goals. The authorities' prognosis didn't correspond to what they were listening to. "Chinese Cultural Diplomacy: instruments in Chinas strategy for international insertion in the 21st Century. [59] This is an example of how products of culture can have an influence on the people they reach outside of their own country. Another unique and important element of cultural diplomacy is its ability to reach youth, non-elites and other audiences outside of the traditional embassy circuit. [citation needed]. John Alter, "You say you want a revolution," Newsweek (September 22, 2003): 37. "Arts diplomacy: The neglected aspect of cultural diplomacy." in, Isar, Y. R. "Cultural diplomacy: an overplayed hand? "Cultural Diplomacy, Political Influence, and Integrated Strategy," in Strategic Influence: Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda, and Political Warfare, ed. This includes both high culture (literature, art, and education, which appeals to elites) and popular culture (appeals to the masses). [64], Museum diplomacy is a subset of cultural diplomacy concerned with museums and the cultural artifacts they exhibit. "[5] This indicates that the value of culture is its ability to attract foreigners to a nation. [58] During the 1950s to 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement, the decolonization of Africa and Asia, and the cultural and political rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union created the need for cultural exchange. Certain cultural activities can also undermine national policy objectives. It is a type of soft power, which is the "ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments. ICD House; June 4th-5th, 2022 in, Clarke, David, and Pawe Duber. Michael J. Waller (Washington, DC: Institute of World Politics Press, 2009), 76. The display was also intended to show a story of recovery and resolution through documenting not only the grief and pain, but also the recovery efforts. Whilst the 'hard power' approach has historically been a favored policy of governments in conducting international and regional relations, the increasingly interconnected world stage highlights the need for co-operation on a new level. Richmond, Yale. More . During this time, rock music channelled liberal "Western" ideas as a progressive and modernized art form. [69], It is also possible that foreign government officials may oppose or resist certain cultural exports while the people cheer them on. If that is correct, cultural diplomacy can only be said to take place when formal diplomats, serving national governments, try to shape and channel this natural flow to advance national interests. aid in changing the policies or political environment of the target nation. Joseph S. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (Cambridge: Perseus Books, 2004), 23. Many critics have stated that Conover's program played a major role in the resurgence of jazz within the Soviet Union after the WWII. Whilst the term "cultural diplomacy" has only recently been established, evidence of its practice can be seen throughout history and has existed for centuries. "Cultural Diplomacy, Political Influence, and Integrated Strategy," in Strategic Influence: Public Diplomacy, Counterpropaganda, and Political Warfare, ed. [49] With this in mind, President Dwight D. Eisenhower established an Emergency Fund for International Affairs in 1954 to stimulate the presentation of America's cultural achievements to international audiences in the realms of dance, theatre and music. "Cultural diplomacy: beyond the national interest? that reaches an audience.

It featured American consumer goods, cars, boats, RCA color TVs, food, clothing, etc., and samples of American products such as Pepsi. They work best when they are proven to be relevant to the target audience, which requires an understanding of the audience. [70] The success of cultural diplomacy is also difficult to measure. [citation needed], The effect The Beatles had in Russia during the Cold War is an example of how music artists and their songs can become political. By accomplishing the first principle, one enables the second, which in turn enables the third until the fifth ultimate principle of global peace and stability is achieved. 4 (December 1999): 677-8, doi:10.1111/0162-895X.00164. [56] Many historians believe that this freedom aspect of jazz was representative of the American culture during this time. "[7] Cultural diplomacy has been called the "linchpin of public diplomacy" because cultural activities have the possibility to demonstrate the best of a nation. Most ideas that a foreign population observes are not in the government's control. Throughout history the interaction of peoples, the exchange of language, religion, ideas, arts and societal structures have consistently improved relations between divergent groups. [1] The purpose of cultural diplomacy is for the people of a foreign nation to develop an understanding of the nation's ideals and institutions in an effort to build broad support for economic and political goals. The images showed glimpses of everyday human life in its various stages; courtship, birth, parenting, work, self-expression, etc., including images from the Great Depression. [53] Members of the advisory panel included such noted American composers and academics as: Virgil Thomson, Howard Hanson at the Eastman School of Music, William Schuman at the Juilliard School, Milton Katims, and the music critic Alfred Frankenstein. But ultimately people came, and the souvenir pins that were given out turned up in every corner of the country. 4 (December 1999): 678, doi:10.1111/0162-895X.00164. Public diplomacy is enhanced by a larger society and culture, but simultaneously public diplomacy helps to "amplify and advertise that society and culture to the world at large". [citation needed], Cultural diplomacy can and does utilize every aspect of a nation's culture. [56][57] In November 1955, the New York Times declared Louis Armstrong as America's most effective ambassador. [4] This is what governments seek to show foreign audiences when engaging in cultural diplomacy. Bratersky, Alexander, "Back in the USSR: the Beatles shaped a generation in Soviet Russia," Russia: beyond the headlines. [58] As a result, the United States government sent a jazz band composed of African American musicians abroad to tour places, including the Middle East and Africa, with the goal of the black musicians establishing connections with their African heritage. Michael J. Waller (Washington, DC: Institute of World Politics Press, 2009), 74. [6] It could be argued that the information component of public diplomacy can only be fully effective where there is already a relationship that gives credibility to the information being relayed. What American diplomats could not do, Armstrong and his jazz music did.

[citation needed], Ultimately, the goal of cultural diplomacy is to influence a foreign audience and use that influence, which is built up over the long term, as a sort of good will reserve to win support for policies. Davidson, Lee, and Leticia Prez-Castellanos, eds. [7] The intent is to build up influence over the long term for when it is needed by engaging people directly. [11] It is seen[by whom?] If an action is not interpreted abroad as the nation meant to it be, then the action itself can become meaningless. Diplomats emphasized the positive effects of musical diplomacy on the public. ambassadors. [45][46] They showcased the talents of several noted conductors and musicians including: James Dixon, John Ferritto, Henry Lewis and Kenneth Schermerhorn. Furthermore, because cultural diplomacy includes political and ideological arguments, and uses the language of persuasion and advocacy, it can be used as an instrument of political warfare and be useful in achieving traditional goals of war. [citation needed] In an effort to change this perception,[citation needed] the United States Information Agency (USIA) sponsored a photographic exhibition titled The Family of Man. [57] In 1956, Dizzy Gillespie took on the role as a musical ambassador during his trip to the Middle East. More , (Berlin; October 26th - 29th, 2022) [47][48], As the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union escalated in the 1950s, the Department of State also supported the performance of classical music as an indispensable diplomatic tool. : Public Diplomacy and Strategic Influence in the Age of Terror (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006), 15. Cultural Exchange and the Cold War: Raising the Iron Curtain. [68] This is also difficult for governments that operate in a free market society where the government does not control the bulk of information flows. It seeks to harness the elements of culture to induce foreigners to:[12], In turn, cultural diplomacy can help a nation better understand the foreign nation it is engaged with and it fosters mutual understanding. Media Sound & Culture in Latin America & the Caribbean. The Soviets banned printed material, but the Americans gave it out anyway. This can accelerate the realization of the 5 important principles below. More , (NYC & Washington D.C.; September 26th - 30th, 2022) The display was extremely popular and attracted large numbers of crowds, in short America "showed the world, the world and got credit for it". In an increasingly globalized, interdependent world, in which the proliferation of mass communication technology ensures we all have greater access to each other than ever before, cultural diplomacy is critical to fostering peace & stability throughout the world. Culture is a set of values and practices that create meaning for society. [70] Cultural activities may be both a blessing and a curse to a nation. For example, the establishment of regular trade routes enables a frequent exchange of information and cultural gifts and expressions between traders and government representatives. An example of this was the very public American dissent to the Iraq War while official government policy still supported it.

[50][51][52] In 1954, the State Department's Cultural Presentations program established a cooperative relationship with the Music Advisory Panel of the American National Theatre and Academy (ANTA) to evaluate potential musical performers who could best represent America at performance venues throughout the world. [56] Like Gorbachev, many Russian youth agreed that the Beatles were a way to overcome the cultural isolation imposed by the Cold War and reinforced by their current political system. Mark Leonard, "Diplomacy by Other Means," Foreign Policy 132 (September/October 2002): 50. Mark Leonard, "Diplomacy by Other Means," Foreign Policy 132 (September/October 2002): 51, 52. Companies with a national focus face a related challenge in ensuring that they are aware of and sensitive to national cultural minorities.

More , Soltauer Str. Nicholas J. Cull, "Public Diplomacy: Taxonomies and Histories," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 616 (March 2008): 33. [citation needed], In the 1950s the Soviet Union had a reputation that was associated with peace, international class solidarity and progress due to its sponsorship of local revolutionary movements for liberation.