He compensated the families of the nobles who had had their property taken during the Revolution. By 1802, Napoleon was named First Consul for life. He inaugurated the Continental System, in which all of France's allies and satellites would join in refusing to trade with the British. Portugal, an ally of Britain, was the only European country that openly refused to join. The French population in 1789 is estimated at 28 million; by 1850, it was 36 million and in 1880 it was around 39 million. A number of artists came to disagree with the cold rationalism and logic of the Positivists, feeling that it ignored human emotions. In 1830 the discontent caused by these changes and Charles X's authoritarian nomination of the Ultra prince de Polignac as prime minister led to his overthrow. In 1884 the leading exponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry declared; "The higher races have a right over the lower races, they have a duty to civilize the inferior races." One of the first acts of Louis-Philippe in constructing his cabinet was to appoint the rather conservative Casimir Perier as the premier of that body. The government allowed Britain to take effective control of Egypt. The king and his military supporters backed down, at least for a short time. The government found its source of legitimacy within the Charter of 1830, written by reform-minded members of Chamber of Deputies upon a platform of religious equality, the empowerment of the citizenry through the reestablishment of the National Guard, electoral reform, the reformation of the peerage system, and the lessening of royal authority. The Suez Canal, initially built by the French, became a joint British-French project in 1875, as both saw it as vital to maintaining their influence and empires in Asia. In this situation, prices rose and the sans-culottes (poor labourers and radical Jacobins) rioted; counter-revolutionary activities began in some regions. By 1795, the French had once again conquered the Austrian Netherlands and the left bank of the Rhine, annexing them directly into France. The subsequent peace treaty was harsh. In 1880, Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue, Marx's son-in-law, created the French Workers' Party (Parti ouvrier franais, or POF), the first Marxist party in France. The pope was invited to the coronation, but Napoleon took the crown from him at the last minute and placed it on his own head. This was helped by the opening of large central banks in Paris to finance overseas expeditions. Louis-Philippe clearly understood his base of power: the wealthy bourgeoisie had carried him aloft during the July Revolution and he kept their interests in mind. A large group of Legitimists on the right demanded the restoration of the Bourbons to the throne. Full citizenship rights assimilation was a long-term goal, but in practice colonial officials were reluctant to extend full citizenship rights. Louis XVIII fled Paris, but the one thing that would have given the emperor mass support, a return to the revolutionary extremism of 17931794, was out of the question. France's economy in the 1830s had a limited iron industry, under-developed coal supplies, and the great majority lived on farms. The French Empire (or the Napoleonic Empire) (18041814) was marked by the French domination and reorganization of continental Europe (the Napoleonic Wars) and by the final codification of the republican legal system (the Napoleonic Code). The initial republic was in effect led by pro-royalists, but republicans (the "Radicals") and bonapartists scrambled for power. The regime was authoritarian in nature during its early years, curbing most freedom of the press and assembly. [18], Louis died in September 1824 and was succeeded by his brother. In fact, Guizot's advice to those who were disenfranchised by the tax-based electoral requirements was a simple "enrichissez-vous" enrich yourself. [20], Charles X was overthrown in an uprising in the streets of Paris, known as the 1830 July Revolution (or, in French, "Les trois Glorieuses" - The three Glorious days - of 27, 28 and July 29). Shortly afterwards, Paris surrendered. The French Revolutionary Wars had begun. The French suffered a string of defeats in 1799, seeing their satellite republics in Italy overthrown and an invasion of Germany beaten back. French rail transport only began hesitantly in the 1830s, and would not truly develop until the 1840s, using imported British engineers. Also a new school of young artists emerged who completely broke with Impressionism and favored a deep, intense subjectivism. On August 4, 1789, the National Assembly abolished feudalism, sweeping away both the seigneurial rights of the Second Estate and the tithes gathered by the First Estate. The history of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes: By the French Revolution, the Kingdom of France had expanded to nearly the modern territorial limits. After the Treaties of Tilsit of July 1807, the French launched an invasion through Spain to close this hole in the Continental System.

Like the U.S. French economic history since its late-18th century Revolution was tied to three major events and trends: the Napoleonic Era, the competition with Britain and its other neighbors in regards to 'industrialization', and the 'total wars' of the late-19th and early 20th centuries. By 1804, Britain alone stood outside French control and was an important force in encouraging and financing resistance to France. The churches were only allowed to continue their religious activity if they kept their doors open to public political meetings during the evenings. [2], Until 1850, population growth was mainly in the countryside, but a period of slow urbanization began under the Second Empire. The Dutch Republic and Spain were both defeated and made into French satellites. They proceeded to do so, and then voted a measure far more radical, declaring themselves the National Assembly, an assembly not of the Estates but of "the People". The king himself was not very popular either by the middle of the 1840s, and due to his appearance was widely referred to as the "crowned pear". The emperor was given an archduchess to marry by the Austrians, and she gave birth to his long-awaited son in 1811. Yet still, Napoleon III's France lagged behind Britain in colonial affairs, and his determination to upstage British control of India and American influence in Mexico resulted in a fiasco. Inspired by Czanne and Gauguin, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Georges Rouault entered the art scene so abruptly that they came to be known as the Fauves (Wild Ones). The revolution also brought about a massive shifting of powers from the Catholic Church to the State. Napoleon himself escaped back to France, where he led the coup d'tat of November 1799, making himself First Consul (his hapless troops remained in Egypt until they surrendered to a British expedition in 1801 and were repatriated to France). He performed all of these actions, of course, with royal approval. Policy became considerably more radical. Enthusiasm quickly waned, and as the allies (then discussing the fate of Europe in Vienna) refused to negotiate with him, he had no choice but to fight. Napoleon's distraction with Mexico prevented him from intervening in the Second Schleswig War in 1864 and the Seven Weeks' War in 1866. The first half of 1793 went badly for the new French Republic, with the French armies being driven out of Germany and the Austrian Netherlands. An angry mob converged on the royal palace, after which the king abdicated and fled to England. Afterwards, Napoleon, unable to defeat Britain militarily, tried to bring it down through economic warfare. Quantitative analysis of output data shows the French per capita growth rates were slightly smaller than Britain. The Suez Canal, initially built by the French, became a joint British-French project in 1875, as both saw it as vital to maintaining their influence and empires in Asia. Louis XVIII was forced to dissolve this Chamber, dominated by the Ultras, in 1816, fearing a popular uprising. Both of those conflicts saw Prussia establish itself as the dominant power in Germany. French troops occupied Mexico City in June 1863 and established a puppet government headed by the Austrian archduke Maximilian, who was declared Emperor of Mexico.

The period from 1879 to 1899 saw power come into the hands of moderate republicans and former "radicals" (around Lon Gambetta); these were called the "Opportunists" (Rpublicains opportunistes). The French were never able to suppress the forces of the ousted Mexican president Benito Jurez, and then in the spring of 1865, the American Civil War ended. However, this represented less than one percent of population, and, as the requirements for voting were tax-based, only the wealthiest gained the privilege. After the defeat of Austria in the War of the Fifth Coalition, Europe was at peace for .mw-parser-output .frac{white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output .frac .num,.mw-parser-output .frac .den{font-size:80%;line-height:0;vertical-align:super}.mw-parser-output .frac .den{vertical-align:sub}.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px}2+12 years except for the conflict in Spain. The regime acknowledged early on that radicalism and republicanism threatened it, undermining its laissez-faire policies. The United States, which had an army of a million battle-hardened troops, demanded that the French withdraw or prepare for war. France was ruled by Emperor Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870. Meanwhile, a renewed threat from abroad arose: Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick William II of Prussia, and the king's brother Charles-Phillipe, comte d'Artois issued the Declaration of Pillnitz which considered the cause of Louis XVI as their own, demanded his total liberty and the dissolution of the Assembly, and promised an invasion of France on his behalf if the revolutionary authorities refused its conditions. The quality of his troops deteriorated sharply and war-weariness at home increased. In particular, the Guizot administration was marked by increasingly authoritarian crackdowns on republicanism and dissent, and an increasingly pro-business laissez-faire policy. Afterwards, Napoleon intervened in the questions of Italian independence. And indeed, Louis-Phillipe and his ministers adhered to policies that seemed to promote the central tenets of the constitution.