understanding emotion regulation strategies in youth from temperamental differences. We considered the items of the three subscales of the Effortful Control factor: I finish my homework before the due date (Activational control); When interrupted or distracted, I forget what I was about to say (Attention, reversed item); and When someone tells me to stop doing something, it is easy for me to stop (Inhibitory control). Consistent with this data, 32% of the adolescents reported that their parents were divorced/separated. (2016). When comparing the motherson to the motherdaughter dyads, we observed no differences regarding the persons with whom the adolescents lived, 2(2, N = 106) = 1.42, p = 0.49; or whether their parents were divorced/separated, 2(2, 106) = 4.05, p = 0.13. Dev. J. Behav. Psychopathol. doi: 10.1080/15295192.2014.870009, Ohannessian, C. M., Lerner, J. V., Lerner, R. M., and Von Eye, A. Temperament is defined as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation (Rothbart and Bates, 2006). Nevertheless, this mediating process would be especially relevant in the case of mothers, who report higher levels of DPC when compared to fathers (Kins et al., 2011). Correlates and antecedents of parental psychological control in early adolescence. By doing so it addresses one of the limitations stipulated in previous studies (Gugliandolo et al., 2015; Gargurevich and Soenens, 2016; Scharf and Goldner, 2018). It would also be relevant to develop studies based on a methodology centered on the person (and not on variables), to determine which cluster of maternal characteristics are related to a greater use of PC. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.12.013, Prez, J. C., and Cumsille, P. (2012). (2002). 47, 658675. doi: 10.2307/1126465, Scharf, M., and Goldner, L. (2018). A meta-analysis on interparental conflict, parenting, and child adjustment in divorced families: examining mediation using meta-analytic structural equation models. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the principal author, without undue reservation. Opin. Rev. Prez and Cumsille (2012) translated the scale into Spanish and administered it to a Chilean sample of adolescents. Psychol. Adults with parental separation anxiety, may express this type of anxiety through the use of PC, such as guilt induction and conditional childs approval.
J. Chilean adaptation and validation of the early adolescent temperament questionnaire-revised version. Parenting 11, 7286. Table 2. Dev. A CFA considering all mothers who accepted participate in the study indicated that the original two-factor solution did not fit with the data, 2(559 df., N = 141) = 1060.908, p < 0.001, RMSEA = 0.080 (95% CI 0.0720.087), CFI = 0.73. (2008). The study results support our hypothesis and is consistent with previous studies that show a positive relation between maternal anxiety about adolescent distancing and maternal PC (Flett et al., 2002; Soenens et al., 2005; Laird, 2011; Wuyts et al., 2017), and the positive relation between inter-parental conflict and maternal PC (Stone et al., 2002; Buehler et al., 2006; Cabrera et al., 2006). doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.11.015, Barber, B. Stud. Azul y rosado: la (an presente) trampa de los estereotipos de gnero. 48, 145177. In the present study, adolescents and their mothers completed the scale. The significant interaction term between maternal separation anxiety and inter-parental conflict (MSA IPC) indicate that the positive relation between maternal separation anxiety and maternal PC depends on the degree of inter-parental conflict. 8:2131. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02131, Huth-Bocks, A. C., and Hughes, H. M. (2008). Mxico, DF: McGraw-Hill Interamericana. Individ. Child Fam. Adolescents reported higher levels of maternal PC than their mothers did. 12:712087. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.712087. Dev.
4. Rothbart and Bates (2006) proposed a psycho-biological model of temperament that establishes three dimensions: (a) surgency, individuals level of activity and his/her tendency to seek novel situations; (b) negative affect, a persons propensity to experience negative emotions such as discomfort, fear, dysphoria, anger, and/or frustration; and (c) effortful control, the ability to suppress a dominant response and replace it with a subdominant response, reflecting the presence of a self-regulatory mechanism. A meta-analysis of the congruence of parents, childrens, and adolescents perceptions of parenting dimensions (Korelitz and Garber, 2016) indicated that children of all ages tend to report higher levels of PC than their mothers. RIDEP 1, 934. Is maternal depression related to mother and adolescent reports of family functioning? Pract. This study was developed within the context of the FONDECYT 11130041 project, which was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universidad del Desarrollo. Personal. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5834.2005.00365.x, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Barber, B. K., Xia, M., Olsen, J., McNeely, C., and Bose, K. (2012). Hoffmann, M., Prez, J. C., Garca, C., Rojas, G., and Martnez, V. (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.011. 1101. Belskys model considers the influence of adult (parental) characteristics, adolescent characteristics, and contextual-related factors.
Rev. Temperament in Handbook of Child Psychology: vol. Based on these cultural expectations, psychologists expect to see greater separation anxiety in mothers than in fathers (Minuchin, 1986; Montesinos, 2007). Finally, regarding the contextual-related factors of Belskys (1984) model, culture (Chen et al., 2016), stressful events or environments, contextual hardship and inter-parental relationships, have shown to impact the use of parental PC (Scharf and Goldner, 2018).
In their Exploratory Factor Analysis, they retained a solution of one-factor that includes seven of the eight original items; they excluded the item my mother expects too much of me based on its low factorial loading. Finally, the adolescent-reported and mother-reported PC were significantly correlated, r(104) = 0.21, p < 0.05. Dev. Parental psychological control: revisiting a neglected construct. Child Dev. To do so, it analyzes whether maternal PC as reported by mothers and by adolescents is linked to mothers separation anxiety, to adolescents effortful control and frustration, and inter-marital conflict as experienced by the adolescent. Higher levels of maternal anxiety about adolescent distancing, inter-parental conflict, and adolescent frustration were associated with higher reported levels of PC. Couple conflict: insights from an attachment perspective. Kins, E., Soenens, B., and Beyers, W. (2011). 24, 362372. Belg.
Youth Adolesc. Mothers were, on average, 45.46 years old (SD = 6.39). Rev. doi: 10.1037/10458-004, Gargurevich, R., and Soenens, B. 16, 421440. Childhood and Society. Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M. C., Stams, G. J. J. M., Hermanns, J. M. A., and Peetsma, T. T. D. (2007). B. K. Barber (Washington: American Psychological Association), 313. Sci. (2002) proposal, that the parents own psychological status impacts the use of PC.
Bull. Rubin, K. H., Hastings, P. D., Stewart, S. L., Henderson, H. A., and Chen, X. Reintroducing parental psychological control in Intrusive Parenting: How Psychological Control Affects Children and Adolescents, ed. Socialization in the context of the family: parent-child interactions in Handbook of Child Psychology: vol. Psychol. 3. doi: 10.1080/10502550902717905, Pettit, G. S., Laird, R. D., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., and Criss, M. M. (2001). In the present study, we will only measure inter-parental conflict as a contextual variable from the adolescents perspective. Stud. Iraurgi et al. The present findings inform on how adolescents self-regulatory skills could reduce the risk of being exposed to maternal PC. Mxico: Gedisa Editorial. Seventy-seven percent were motherson dyads. In the present study, we focus on maternal separation anxiety, which refers to feelings or unpleasant emotional states (such as anxiety, sadness, and frustration) associated with the adolescents independence and autonomy, such as, adolescents affective distancing of their families and decreased involvement with them, and their progressive involvement with people outside of the family (Hock et al., 2001). 63, 129141. J. Fam. Another plausible explanation of this interaction effect would be that it is indicative of the personal characteristics of the mother, in lines to Barber et al. In Latin American and Chilean culture, it is plausible to hypothesize that separation anxiety toward their children would be higher in mothers than fathers since child rearing is still mainly perceived as a maternal responsibility (Aguayo et al., 2011). 24, 22902300. We used the subscale Anxiety about adolescent distancing, from the self-report scale Parents of Adolescents Separation Anxiety Scale (PASAS), to measure maternal separation anxiety.
Stud. 16, 265292. 35, 273287. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00101, Soenens, B., Elliot, A. J., Goossens, L., Vansteenkiste, M., Luyten, P., and Duriez, B. doi: 10.1017/s0954579404044591, Oldehinkel, A. J., Hartman, C. A., Ferdinand, R. F., Verhulst, F. C., and Ormel, J. Child Dev. The aim of this study was to deepen the understanding of which conditions increase the risk of the use of maternal PC by simultaneously considering the contribution of adolescent temperament, maternal separation anxiety, and adolescents perception of interparental conflict. J. Pers. (2018). We scored each scale by averaging the scores of the items as reported by the adolescents ( = 0.73) and by their mothers ( = 0.77). Child Adolesc. Neff, L. A., and Karney, B. R. (2009). doi: 10.1017/S0954579407070253. Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., and Cook, W. L. (2006). (ed.) The factor-1 represent the Maternal Separation Anxiety dimension, including 20 of the 21 items from the original anxiety about adolescent distancing subscale plus items 9 (My teenager is a source of comfort for me when Im upset) and 14 (I will miss seeing my teenagers belongings around the house after he/she leaves home), for which factor loadings were significant in the Chilean sample (see Supplementary Table S2). Adolesc. J. 67, 32963319. 30, 7499. The low factor loading of this item was also reported by Barber et al. It is important mentioning that 92% of the families in which the adolescent lived only with his or her mother, corresponded to separated or divorced mothers. Different explanations can be proposed to explain this interaction effect. Continuous variables were mean centered prior to creating the interaction terms.
Child Fam. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.04.017, Finkenauer, C., Engels, R. C., and Baumeister, R. F. (2005). Stud. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2006.00132.x. Finally, when maternal separation anxiety and inter-parental conflict were high there was a higher use of maternal PC. Specifically, we expect that higher levels of maternal anxiety about adolescent distancing, inter-parental conflict, and adolescent frustration corresponded with higher reported levels of maternal PC. (2000).
The maternal characteristics associated to an increase use of maternal PC toward their children are competence-related personality features (e.g., low self-worth and perfectionism) and autonomy-related difficulties (e.g., separation anxiety) (Soenens et al., 2005, 2006; Laird, 2011; Scharf and Goldner, 2018). Familias y Terapia Familiar. Feeling disrespected by parents: refining the measurement and understanding of psychological control. In addition, we observed a negative correlation with the adolescents level of effortful control. doi: 10.1037/10422-003, Sturge-Apple, M. L., Gondoli, D. M., Bonds, D. D., and Salem, L. N. (2003). (2003). Psicothema 25, 151157. Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early adolescence. Directrices para la traduccin y adaptacin de los tests: segunda edicin. Table 1. When maternal anxiety about adolescent distancing, inter-parental conflict, and adolescent frustration were higher, higher levels of PC were reported. Socialization, Personality, and Social Development, eds H. Mussen and E. M. Hetherington (New York, NY: Wiley). Diff.
A three-factor solution was selected based on empirical and theoretical points of view. 26, 35463558. Dev. In search of the sources of psychologically controlling parenting: the role of parental separation anxiety and parental maladaptive perfectionism. Child Fam. Specifically, adolescents need to achieve autonomy and reduce emotional closeness with their parents (Erikson, 1950; Papalia et al., 2012), and parents need to achieve generativity (Erikson, 1950), might explain the different in perceptions on the quality of parent-adolescent relations. The Determinants of parenting: a process model. Dev. The myth of motherhood and the role of stepmothers: an outlook of women who have delayed their motherhood. (2018) found that mothers perceived their family as more cohesive and more adaptable than their adolescents. (2020). These behaviors include guilt induction, affection withdrawal, and/or the manipulation of the parentchild relationship (Barber, 2002; Barber and Harmon, 2002). Clin.
68, 467483. Despite these limitations, the present study complements previous findings by demonstrating how the childs characteristics, mothers characteristics and contextual factors are associated with maternal PC, not just in an additive but also in multiplicative form, helping to understand how these conditions could increase the use of maternal PC.
27, 396427. (1984). 19, 358366. 76, 11441159. Parental PC has shown detrimental effects on child development in multiple cultural settings (Pettit et al., 2001; Barber et al., 2005; Finkenauer et al., 2005; Koak et al., 2017; Symeou and Georgiou, 2017; Scharf and Goldner, 2018) including collectivist societies which perceive parental control as an expression of love and care (Gargurevich and Soenens, 2016). McCoach, D. B., and Black, A. C. (2008). Interparental conflict, parental psychological control and youth problem behavior, in Intrusive Parenting: how Psychological Control Affects Children and Adolescents, ed. Parent.
J. Soc. The Null Model showed that the Intra-Class correlation indicated that 18% of variance of maternal PC is due to between-person differences.
Iraurgi, I., Martnez-Pampliega, A., Sanz, M., Cosgaya, L., Galndez, E., and Muoz, A. Violating the self: parental psychological control of children and adolescents in Intrusive Parenting: How Psychological Control Affects Children and Adolescents, ed. Therefore, mothers would exert more control over their daughters than their sons, due to the preconceptions of weakness attributed to women and the need for greater protection associated to their sexual development and couple formation (Asociacin Chilena Pro Naciones Unidas, ACHNUProdeni, 2006; Jimnez-Moya et al., 2020).
When Model 3 was considered, deviance difference indicated that this model did not improve significatively the fit, but AIC and BIC showed a small decrease, indicating that this model would better fit the data. 11130041 and 1201675 from Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Cientfico y Tecnolgico, Chile (FONDECYT) and supported by ANID Millennium Science Initiative/Millennium Institute for Research on Depression and Personality- MIDAP ICS13_005. Regarding the adolescents sex, we only observed differences in the level of maternal anxiety about separation from their children, which was greater for daughters (M = 3.20, SD = 0.86) than for sons (M = 2.76, SD = 0.78), t(104) = 2.381, p = 0.019. doi: 10.2190/AG.2.4.b, Booth, A. T., Macdonald, J. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.126.2.247. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.07.007, Van Beveren, M., De Clercq, B., and Braet, C. (2020). Maccoby, E. E., and Martin, J. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Thus, to establish the possible impact of parents not living together, it was analyzed whether there were differences in the maternal PC reported by the mother and adolescent according to the types of family. The observation that adolescents report higher levels of maternal PC than their mothers is also consistent with past studies that have shown that parents tend to report more favorably than their children about parenting, parentchild relationships, and family functioning (e.g., Ohannessian et al., 1995; Ohannessian et al., 2000; Ohannessian and De Los Reyes, 2014). Adolescents were, on average, 15.42 years old (SD = 1.09) and 77% male. 20, 157170. Mothers who agreed to participate signed the Informed Consent and completed their questionnaires. Contextual stress and maternal sensitivity: a meta-analytic review of stress associations with the maternal behavior Q-Sort in observational studies. A. OConnell and D. Betsy McCoach (Charlotte: Information Age), 245272. Discrepancies in adolescents and their mothers perceptions of the family and adolescent anxiety symptomatology.