Terms of Service apply. The customs of Patriarchal times, as described in the Bible, are endorsed by archaeological finds at such places as Ur, Mari, Boghazkoi, and Nineveh. The Bible comes with the authority of almighty God. (A writing from the book of Esther is found in another scroll.). Do you have questions or comments about the material on this website? These buildings, mentioned in Acts 19, have been excavated in the ruins of the ancient city of Ephesus. This document was found on Elephantine Island in Egypt. There was another Ur to the north, mentioned in the Ebla Tablets. Blog posts are short, timely posts that encourage us to move forward on our Christian journey. These were written records from that daynot just put down in writing many centuries later. The Epic of Gilgamesh includes the Babylonian Flood Story. Dating: Determining the correct date and time period for ancient towns and artifacts is a very important part of archaeology. The meanings of these words were unknown at the time of the production of the King James Version of the Bible in 1611. Thus, Abrahams relationship with Hagar is seen in a different light by understanding that the woman who could not personally bear a child for her husband should provide him with one of her maidservants. Such findings are hoped for, not only by Bible students, but by disinterested archaeologists as well, because they know that they must take Bible records seriously. If archaeology could prove the Bible, archaeology would be greater than the Bible, but it is not. Deities such as Baal, Asherah, and Dagan are properly identified in association with the right people. The Medes and the Persians took over after the Babylonians. It is indeed true that truth shall spring out of the earth (Psalm 85:11). We are told in Psalm 85:11, Truth shall spring out of the earth, and in Psalm 119:89, Forever, O Lord, Your word is settled in heaven. Gods Word is sure. Ur Nammu, the king of Ur who claimed to build a famous tower. His new name was Zaphnath-Paaneah, meaning head of the sacred college (Genesis 41:4145). The symbol of Nineveh was a pregnant woman with a fish in her womb. She knew the teraphim (clay gods) were associated with title deeds, which was a custom of that time. It is also highly important that Isaiah and others so accurately pointed to the coming Messiah.

One example is that of Sargon, a king named in Isaiah 20:1.

The Bible itself is the absolute; archaeology is not.

Ethical concepts of the Law were not too early for Moses, despite earlier hypercriticism. As the Assyrians disappeared from history after the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BC, this retention of obsolete words is a strong pointer to the eyewitness nature of the records. The Law of Moses was written by a man raised in the courts of pharaoh, and it was greatly superior to other law codes, such as those of the Babylonian king Hammurabi, and the Eshnunna code that was found near modern Baghdad. Scientifically speaking, the earth is what rises. However, though the Bible is not a science textbook, it is yet wonderfully true that where the Bible touches on science it is astonishingly accurate. Why Does Gods Creation Include Death and Suffering? Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem and took Judah into captivity. This term is used only here in the Bible. Its thought that this house may have been the actual home of the disciple Peter, where early Christians met together. Sometimes the Bible uses the language of phenomenaas when it refers to the sun rising. http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/619, Noahs Flood: a Historical, Global Catastrophe, A flood of evidence shows the continuity between the New Testament documents (e.g., the Rylands Papyrus with parts of. They have been excavated by archaeologists and the ruins, like these at Chorazin, can be seen today. The prophecies against Nineveh, Babylon, and Tyre in Isaiah are typical examples, as are the early records of creation in the Bible. Here are just a few of the many findings that support the Old and New Testament texts. The papyrii from those Egyptian talking crocodiles have demonstrated that the New Testament documents are remarkable records of the times claimed for them in the language of everyday people. This spiritual application is surely one of the most important aspects of biblical archaeology, reminding us that holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit (2 Peter 1:21).

The Cyrus Cylinder (a clay cylinder found in 1879 inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform with an account of Cyrus conquest of Babylon in 539 BC) confirms that Cyrus had a conquest of Babylon. Even when excavators are digging to uncover a past time period dealt with in the Bible, it is by no means sure that direct biblical history will be unearthed. Privacy Policy and

Archaeological finds indicate that the city plan was probably changed at the time of the Judges, supporting the biblical record of the tribe of Dans conquest of Laish (Judges 18:27-28). From 1 Kings 6:1 we know that Joshua and the people of Israel entered the Promised Land in about 1400 BC. The capital of the ancient Assyrian Empire was finally found in the 20th century. This major city in northern Israel was conquered and destroyed by fire during the conquest of Canaan (Joshua 11:10-11). A link with Bible history is an excellent dating point, always desirable but not possible or achieved.

Problems about the census at the time of our Lords birth have been resolved by the findings of important papyrus documents. Nebuchadnezzar wrote that the walls of Babylon would be a perpetual memorial to his name, but Jeremiah said, The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken (Jeremiah 51:58). These carvings are Assyrian records that corroborate and support the accounts of the Assyrian invasion of Judah, recorded in 2 Kings 18-19, 2 Chronicles 32 and Isaiah 36-37. Because of their unbelief, Jesus pronounced judgment on these bustling lakeside towns (Matthew 11). A mikvah was a small pool for Jewish ceremonial washings. He issued the famous Cyrus Decree that allowed captive peoples to return to their own lands (2 Chronicles 36:2223 and Ezra 1:14). Internet Explorer is no longer supported. This inscription and the writings of the Jewish historian, Josephus Flavius, corroborate the Bibles record of the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate. The name of Jeremiahs scribe, Baruch, also has been found on a 6th century BC bulla. Elephantine papyri, the Dead Sea Scrolls, Targums of Job, etc., show that Aramaic was then in use, as Ezra indicates.

Radioactive carbon testing can be used to date anything which was previously living, such as wood, grain, bone, cloth, etc. GCM produces two periodic publications.

It has touched the history and culture of Israel and her neighbors at many points and has often surprised researchers by the implicit accuracy of its statements. In further conversation after the lecture, Professor Wright told me that he had lectured for 30 years to graduate studentsespecially at Harvardand he had told them that they could forget Moses in the Pentateuch. Box 2268 Westerly, RI 02891. Joseph becomes successful in Egypt and helps to settle all of Israel there. The information in the Bible proved to be completely accurate! In every area, the evidence has been forthcoming: God has vindicated His Word, and His Book is a genuine writing, with prophecies and revelation that must be taken seriously. Prophecies against Babylon (e.g., Jeremiah 51, 52) have been literally fulfilled. This acrostic may be photocopied and enlarged. Nehemiahs time was with Artaxerxes I who ruled from 465 to 423 BC, not Artaxerxes II. Cyrus became king over the Medes and Persians.

The Bibles record is conservative and is the true account, while the Babylonian and other traditions have been embellished over time. Your newsletter signup did not work out.

Bible writers tell us the names of such Assyrian kings as Sennacherib and Esarhaddon, and we now know a great deal more about these rulers from records recovered in their palaces and libraries. Enuma ElishThis is the Babylonian Creation Record.

The covenant forms of the writings of Moses follow the same format as those of the Hittites, as endorsed by Professor George Mendenhall. Very often archaeology does endorse particular Bible events. A substantial number of scholarly archaeologists are committed Christians, but they are a minority. Over and over again the Bible has been vindicated from Genesis to Revelation. Various details about Nineveh and the account of Jonah point to the Bibles historicity. Archaeological findings have silenced critics who claimed that many of the Bibles historical facts were merely legends. Archaeology has done a great deal to cause many scholars to take the Bible much more seriously. At the time of his lecture, Professor Nelson Glueck stated, I have excavated for thirty years with a Bible in one hand and a trowel in the other, and in matters of historical perspective I have never found the Bible to be in error. Being a world-class Jewish scholar, Professor Glueck would have meant the Old Testament when he referred to the Bible, but it is also true that at least on one occasion, to my knowledge, he defended the accuracy of the New Testament writings as well. As Nozomi Osanai wrote in her masters thesis on a comparison between Noahs Flood and the Gilgamish Epic, According to the specifics, scientific reliability, internal consistency, the correspondence to the secular records, and the existence of common elements among the flood traditions around the world, the Genesis account seems to be more acceptable as an accurate historical record.1. Characteristics of architecture, or the styles of human artifacts are distinctive for each time period in a civilization. In John 19:13 we read that Jesus was tried at The Pavement. Although the pavement we see today is dated to the time of the Roman emperor Hadrian (about 100 years after Christ), this may well have been the location. The exile in Babylon is endorsed at various points, and the Cyrus Decree makes it clear that captured people could return to their own lands and worship according to their own beliefs. Thus it points also to the genuineness of the prophecies because the same men who wrote the historical facts also wrote prophecies.

God was in control of His peoples historyeven using a Gentile king to bring His purposes to pass. Critics said There was no such king, but his palace and library were uncovered. Using this Scripture, Israeli archaeologist Yigael Yadin correctly predicted the type of walls and gates he would find at Megiddo. Archaeological facts help the Bible student understand times and circumstances better than would otherwise be possible. Part of the main Scroll of Isaiah recovered alongside the Dead Sea. He now acknowledged that for thirty years he had been wrong, and that Moses really had been personally involved in the actual writing of the Pentateuch. Other Egyptian phrases and other local color are also plentiful throughout the record (e.g., embalming and burial practices [Genesis 50]). Laws and customs, gods, and religious practices are shown to be associated with times and places mentioned in the Bible. Every one of these has been remarkably confirmed as being accurate and reliable by the research of credible scholars. We never send unsolicited requests for funds. Huge building stones have been uncovered in archaeological excavations at the foot of the Temple Mount platform. At many points it is greatly superior to other writings left by neighboring people. The Jewish Temple was one of the wonders of the ancient world (a model representation is pictured).

Interestingly, the Hittite word for retainers, which means servants trained in a mans own household is hanakim (Genesis 14:14). According to that biblical principle of two or three witnesses, we shall now select evidences that support the truth and accuracy of Gods Word. The fact that these titles are correctly used in the Old Testament is another strong argument for eyewitness recording. Thank you for signing up to receive email newsletters from Answers in Genesis. The Bible is the true account of this historical event.

The Assyrian period has given dramatic confirmation to biblical records, with excavations of palace after palace over the last 150 years. His Book is unique because it is His Book. Each of them (at two separate excavations) gave wonderful lectures to 140 American college students.

Others are touched in passing, including Egyptian, Canaanite, Philistine, Babylonian, Persian, Latin, and Assyrian. It was later realized that the Babylonians had two bases for arithmetic calculations, based on either tens or sixties. It is His Word, and He is greater than all else. If it can be shown (as it can) that the Bible writers lived and gave their message against the backgrounds claimed for them, it becomes clear that their amazing prophetic messages are also genuine, written long before the events they prophesied. It was an idolatrous city, extravagant in its worship of false gods. God alone gave Israel their golden age.. However, it is remarkable that where confirmation is possible and has come to light, the Bible survives careful investigation in ways that are unique in all literature. The Bible record was endorsed when such an endorsement seemed unlikely (1 Samuel 31:910 and 1 Chronicles 10:10). See Eric Lyons, Many other points of interest from the Dead Sea Scrolls are outlined in the book. The Old Testament is an ancient book, not a modern record, and its style is that of the East and not the West. French professor Andre Lemaire, who has worked on restoring the inscription, said, This inscription easily establishes the importance of Israel and Judah on the international scene at this time., The Lachish Reliefs and Sennacheribs Prism (700 BC). Those terms are tartan (commander-in-chief), rabshakeh (chief of the princes), and rabsaris (chief eunuch). The local color and the integrity of prophecies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Bible. This site is possibly the house of Caiaphas (Luke 22:54), where the Lord was held in custody before His trial. Archaeologists are scholars, usually academics with interest in the Bible as an occasional source book. eDevos are in-depth essays on a particular topic or Scripture. Adad-Niraris palace was virtually alongside the later construction of what is known as Nebi Yunis (the prophet Jonah). The Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah also shows an old form of the Hebrew letter tau, which looks like an X in the margin of the scroll. We also have the Ebla Creation Tablet. Both Philistine and Canaanite temples were found. Consider five important ways in which archaeology has been of great value for Bible students.

Digging: Although some archaeological studies are done above ground (for example, the Pyramids), most archaeological work involves excavating to expose the buried remains of past civilizations or cultures.

In the Bible record we are told that it was Sarah who made the approach to Abraham, and her maid Hagar was a willing accomplice in having Abrahams child. The Theater (pictured) and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Both the water shaft mentioned in 2 Samuel 5:8 (about 1000 BC), and Hezekiahs tunnel referenced in 2 Kings 20:20 (about 700 BC), have been found. These letters are from a Canaanite ruler requesting help from Egypt against an invasion from the Habiru people. always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear.

Events surrounding the words and actions of Jesus have been authenticated by archaeological discoveries. This was unknown to modern historians until it was confirmed by the German professor Koldewey, who excavated Babylon approximately 100 years ago. (Another inscription has shown that Quirinius was in Syria twicefirst as a military leader at a time of civil unrest, and later as Governor of Syria.) It is indeed true that He spoke the language of His time on earth (Mark 12:37).

The remains of ancient cities, dwellings, tools, agricultural and household implements, weapons, religious artifacts, pottery, coins, etc., are studied to gain information about the cultures of ancient civilizations. We have not said, Archaeology proves the Bible, and we do not suggest it. Woolleys Ur in the south was Abrahams city. Mans speech distinguishes him uniquely from all the animals, and Gods written Word distinguishes His special communication to man as immeasurably superior to all other supposed revelations. Radioactive dating of grain and burned material support the biblical date of about 1400 BC for the Israelite conquest of Canaan. Possibly, the finding of the Dead Sea Scrolls is one of the most wonderful facts regarding the relevance of biblical archaeology and the Bible.5, Part of an inscription about enrolling for the poll tax. Sanballat was, as the Bible says, the Governor of Samaria (Nehemiah 4 and 6), though it was claimed by many writers that Sanballat was much later than Nehemiah.

These documents were found in Egypt inside sacred, embalmed crocodiles. This inscription tells of the conflict between Israel and Moab after the death of Ahab, (recorded in 2 Kings 1:1 and 3:5-27). As already stated, both the records of the Assyrians and the Dead Sea Scrolls (with a near-complete copy of Isaiah) were totally hidden from human eyes for about 2,000 years. (Ebla tablets from Syria pre-date Moses and, for example, include penalties against rape.). The Scrolls have provided copies of most of the Old Testament, for fragments of every Old Testament book except Esther have been found in Hebrew, about 1,000 years earlier than previous extant Hebrew copies. Pilate is now better known because of a recovered inscription at Caesarea. We have already said that we do not use the statement: Archaeology proves the Bible. In fact, such a claim would be putting archaeology above the Bible. In every area, the evidence has been forthcoming: God has vindicated His Word, and His Book is a genuine writing, with prophecies and revelation that must be taken seriously. Archaeology gives local color, indicating that the background is authentic. Old Testament Jericho has been excavated several times. Abrahams home city of Ur was excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley, with surprising evidence of near-luxury.2. Later excavations have uncovered a Canaanite palace, which was probably the palace of Jabin (Judges 4). Growing Christians Ministries, P.O. Just as Jesus predicted, not one stone of the Temple was left upon another. Josephs installation as vizier (chief minister) is very similar to other recorded ceremonies. CCustomsRachel stealing clay gods; Josephs story; religious practices; ruthlessness of Assyrians; unchangeable laws of Medes and Persians; enrolling for census when Jesus was born. Archaeology confirms Bible history, and it often shows that Bible people and incidents are correctly referred to. These findings are excellent confirmations of Gods Word, as opposed to proving the Bible.. Another illustration is the death of the Assyrian King Sennacherib. Send us an email!

The Tower of Babel was most likely an early ziggurat. It is a biblical principle that matters of testimony should be established by the mouths of two or three witnesses. The Cyrus CylinderIsaiah referred to him prophetically. Archaeology has demonstrated the accuracy of many Bible prophecies. He stated that the research of Professor George Mendenhall had led to the conclusionwith which he agreedthat the covenant documents of Moses were a unity and must be dated to approximately 1500 BC. Other Assyrian titles such as rabmag, rabshakeh, and tipsarru were also used by Bible writers. Forever, O Lord, Your word is settled in heaven. The Answers Book for Kids Set, Volumes 1 & 2. The death of Sennacherib is recorded at Isaiah 37:38 and 2 Kings 19:37 and is confirmed in the records of Sennacheribs son, Esarhaddon.

It states that Sanballat was governor of Samaria under the Persian Empire, exactly as recorded in Nehemiah 26. PProphecyabout Bible lands and people, as well as the Lord Jesus Christ. GCM is a faith ministry supported entirely by the gifts of Christians.

This puts Gods Word in a unique category: it is the other side of the two-way communication pattern between God and man. After years of destructive criticism from skeptics, the Bibles accurate accounts were confirmed by archaeology. It is Gods chosen way of revealing His thoughtsthe deep things which are unsearchable except by the revelation of the Holy Spirit. The historical information in the Bible is so accurate that it has actually assisted archaeologists in their work. These tablets mention some customs of that time that are also mentioned in the Bible, including the solemn covenant ritual recorded in Genesis 15.

Genesis 12:4-5 mention that Abraham traveled through Haran on his way to Canaan. Following the discovery of the Ugaritic library, it has become clear that the Psalms of David should be dated to his times and not to the Maccabean period, 800 years later, as critics claimed. Those papyrus findings have thrown much light on the words our Lord used. Most of the content of these two sources overlapped and thus confirmed the evidence for the genuineness of the prophecies of Isaiah. Solomon began his reign in about 971 BC, thus placing the date of the Exodus at about 1447 BC. He spoke on the validity of the writings of Moses, especially the covenant documents in the Pentateuch. Engravings on the paving stones have been identified as a Roman gambling game called the game of the king (see John 19:23). Nelson Glueck, a renowned Jewish archaeologist, stated that no archaeological discovery has ever disproved a biblical reference! The Bible record is clearly superior to this as the Enuma Elish has creation from pre-existing matter, which really isnt creation at all. There have been times when new light has been thrown on words used in Scripture in both Old and New Testaments.

Ur, the city where Abraham was born and called by God, has been uncovered and is shown to have been a large, advanced city at that time (Genesis 11). A mud brick city gate dated to Canaanite times has been discovered there. Neo-Hittites came later, but there were distinct language relationships. The Bible is the other side of the Christians study of the miracle of language. To preserve His people from involvement in this type of sin when they entered the Promised Land, God told the Israelites to completely destroy the Canaanites (Deuteronomy 7:1-6).

It supplied water from the Gihon Spring (outside the city walls) to the Pool of Siloam (inside the walls). Solomon even used similar blueprints for some duplicated buildings. The discovery of these very ancient tablets silenced many biblical critics, who said that the Genesis records couldnt possibly be true because people couldnt read or write at that stage of human history. The superiority of Genesis 111 has been established, and the patriarchal backgrounds have been endorsed. They also describe the Babylonian assault on Jerusalem in 597 BC, in which the prophet Ezekiel was captured and taken to Babylon. After 40 years in the wilderness, the Israelite conquest of Jericho can be dated to about 1400 BC. The Dead Sea Scrolls make the number of the people of Jacob 75, not 70, in Genesis 46:27, thus correcting a scribal error and showing that Stephens figure was right (Acts 7:14).3, The Eshnunna Law Code dating to c.1900 BC. The tunnel is an incredible feat of engineering. It is actual history, and it is a summary of beginnings. Geshem the Arab (Nehemiah 6) is also known. Those everyday expressions from Pauls time have also thrown much light on Pauls writings themselves. Archaeologists have found that Haran was a thriving city at that time. The records of the five kings who fought against four kings (Genesis 14) are interesting, in that the names of the people concerned fit the known words and names of the times. Definition: The science of archaeology studies past human life and activities of ancient cultures by examining artifacts (material products made by humans). The Temple was torn apart by Roman armies in 70 AD. It was later added to by Esarhaddons son Ashur-bani-pal. And some would say that in this way it proves the Bible. But such a statement should be taken with reservation because archaeology is the support, not the main foundation. Please refresh the page and try again. The renowned scholar William Foxwell Albright wrote, To suggest that the Psalms of David should be dated to the Maccabean period is absurd.4. We also know that Belshazzar really was the king of Babylon at this time because his father Nabonidus, who was undertaking archaeological research, was away from Babylon for about 10 years. Pagan cultic artifacts were also found, which may explain the belief that sick persons would be healed when the waters were stirred.. They bear the marks of eyewitness reporting. Ezra and Nehemiah are accurate reflections of that post-exilic period. Sauls head and armor were put into two temples at Beth-Shan. The census was probably delayed in Palestine because of that civil unrest. Considerable light was thrown on New Testament backgrounds and on the Jewish nature of Johns Gospel. Davids Psalms were clearly products of his time, and records about Solomon should no longer be written off as legendary. Solomon was a literary giant, a commercial magnate, and a powerful rulerunder God. Other tablets recording the same events have been recovered, but they are often distorted and corrupted. Some Jews remained in Babylon, as shown in the book of Esther.

ClaySeals(or bullae) were flat discs of clay that sealed important documents. Critics at one time said that there was no such king. The more this new science of archaeology touches the records of the Bible, the more we are convinced that it is a unique record. He appointed his son Belshazzar as co-regent during that time.

The name Habiru is descriptive of nomadic peoples.

These writings come from one source only, and there is no one to fit this requirement at this time except Moses. Archaeology is the study of ancient peoples and their cultures. Rachels stealing her fathers clay gods illustrates the correct understanding of customs: she and Leah asked, Is there yet any portion or inheritance for us in our fathers house? (Genesis 31:14). N. Osanai, A comparative study of the flood accounts in the Gilgamesh Epic and Genesis.

1 Kings 6:1 precisely dates the Exodus as 480 years before Solomon began to build the Temple.

The law code is a unity, dating to about 1500 BC (the time of Moses). Daniel knew that Nebuchadnezzar was responsible for the splendor of Babylon (Daniel 4:30). Kings, rulers, and officials are named unerringly; titles are used casually but with remarkable accuracy; geographic boundaries are highlighted; and customs are correctly touched on. The Western Wall of the platform (formerly called the Wailing Wall), is the principal place of prayer for Jews in Jerusalem today. These inscriptions tell of the fall of Nineveh in 612 BC, as predicted in the book of Nahum. Its superiority to attack, its capacity to withstand criticism, and its amazing facility to be proved right are all staggering by any standards of scholarship. The historical information given by Luke in his description of Pauls sea voyage to Rome (Acts 27-28) was investigated by experts in historical geography. The Jews were searching for a Messiah or Messiahsthe king-like David, the great High Priest of the people of Israel, the High Priest after the order of Melchizedek, the prophet like Moses, and possibly the pierced Messiah. But then his palace was found at Khorsabad, and there was a description of the very battle referred to by Isaiah. For example, contrasts such as light and darkness are common to John and the War Scroll, a text that describes the eschatological last battle; and Hebrew was still a living language, not just a priestly language. Ziggurats (towers from which worship of the heavens took place) have been found in Ur, Babylon, and in other places in Iraq. Written in cuneiform not too long after the Tower of Babel, these tablets mention Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19), which were thriving cities at that time. These are the other four books of the Pentateuch, written by Moses, and probably at times in consultation with Aaron, the chief priest, and Joshua, the military leader. It was rebuilt and again destroyed by Deborah and Barak (Judges 4). The documents of the New Testament have been validated as accurate historical documents. Solomonic cities such as Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer (1 Kings 9:15) have been excavated. Its possible that the 3,000 new converts on the Day of Pentecost were baptized in these pools (Acts 2:41). Such excavations constantly add to our understanding of the background to Old Testament kings, prophets, peoples, and incidents. The three Bible writings most attacked by critics were the Moses Pentateuch, Ezra/Nehemiah, and Luke. Our understanding of essential biblical doctrine has never changed because of archaeological findings. The letters about Sanballat (above) clear up a dating point regarding Nehemiah.

However, a 1st century burial cave and an ossuary (a small coffin for bones) inscribed with the name Caiaphas were discovered in Jerusalem in 1990. Those inspired men of old wrote down Gods message, applicable to themselves in their own times, and also applicable to men and women across the centuries, right down to the present century. The Israelites had been wanderers in the wilderness prior to this time, so Habiru may be related to the name Hebrew.. Seemingly assured results disproving the Bible have a habit of backfiring. Mentioned in John 5, this site has been excavated near the Temple area.